Water Resources: Class 10 Geography NCERT Chapter 3

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 –  Water Resources

In the last chapter 2, you learn about forest and wildlife resources. In this chapter, you will find out about water resources. The part begins with the accessibility of freshwater on earth and how water scarcity generates. The section discusses the pros and cons of constructing dams on rivers. At long last, the part talks about Rain Water Harvesting as a means to conserve water. Here, we have arranged the CBSE Notes for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 on Water Resources. These notes spread all the crucial topics which are discussed in the section. 

Brisk revision notes 

In the first century B.C. Sringaverapura close, Allahabad had a sophisticated water harvesting system channeling the stream Ganga’s rising water. 

During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and water system systems were extensively constructed. 

Evidence of sophisticated water system works has also been found in Kalinga, Nagarjunakonda, Benner, Kolhapur, and so on. 

In the eleventh century, Bhopal lake, one of the largest fake lakes, was constructed. 

In the fourteenth century, the tank of Hauz Khas, Delhi, was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to the Siri Fort region. 


  1. We realize that three-fourth of the earth’s surface is covered with water. However, just a small extent of it accounts for freshwater that can be used. 
  2. This freshwater is mostly acquired from surface runoff and groundwater that is constantly being reestablished and revived through the hydrological cycle. 
  3. All water moves inside the hydrological cycle, ensuring that water is a sustainable resource. 


  1. The second we speak of water shortages, we quickly associate it with regions with low precipitation or dry season inclined regions. 
  2. The accessibility of water resources varies over space and time, basically because of seasonal and yearly precipitation variations. Yet, water scarcity, much of the time, is caused by finished – misuse, excessive use, and inconsistent access to water among various social groups. 
  3. Water scarcity might result from the enormous and developing populace and consequent more noteworthy demands for water and inconsistent access to it. 
  4. A massive crowd means more water for domestic use as well as to create more food. 
  5. Subsequently, to encourage higher food-grain creation, water resources are being over-misused to grow flooded areas and dry-season agriculture. 
  6. Post-free India witnessed intensive industrialization and urbanization, making vast opportunities for us. 
  7. The ever-increasing number of industries has exacerbated the situation by applying pressure on existing freshwater resources. 
  8. Enterprises, aside from being substantial users of water, also expect the capacity to run them. 
  9. Today, in India, the hydroelectric force contributes roughly 22% of the complete power created. 


  1. Archeological and historical records show that we have been constructing sophisticated water-powered structures as dams worked of stone rubble, reservoirs or lake, embankments, and canals for the water system from old times. 
  2. Dams were customarily worked to appropriate rivers and rainwater that could be used later to flood horticultural fields. 
  3. Today, dams are manufactured for the water system and power age, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood controls, diversion, inland route, and fish rearing. 
  4. Dams are presently referred to as the seized water that is incorporated with each other. 
  5. Lately, multi-purposes projects and huge dams have gone under extraordinary scrutiny and opposition for various reasons. 
  6. The reservoirs made on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil, prompting its decomposition over some time. 
  7. Multi-purpose projects and enormous dams have also been the cause of numerous new social movements. 
  8. Neighborhood individuals regularly needed to surrender their land, occupation, and pitiful access and power over resources for everyone’s benefit. 
  9. The water system has also changed the trimming example of numerous regions with farmers shifting to water-intensive and business crops. 
  10. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape, for example, increasing the social hole between the more extravagant landowners and the landless poor. 
  11. Most of the projects’ objections arose because of their inability to accomplish the purposes for which they were constructed. 
  12. Unexpectedly, the dams constructed to control floods have triggered floods because of sedimentation in the reservoir. 
  13. Besides, the large dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive precipitation. 


  1. Numerous, however, that given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multi-purpose projects, the water harvesting system was a feasible other option, both socio-financially and naturally. 
  2. Individuals had inside and out information on precipitation regimes and soil types. They grew wide running techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, stream water, and rising water regarding the natural neighborhood conditions and their water needs. 
  3. In slope and mountainous regions, individuals assembled diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of the western Himalayas for agriculture. 
  4. ‘Housetop downpour water harvesting’ was normally polished to store drinking water, especially in Rajasthan. 
  5. In Rajasthan’s semi-bone-dry regions, especially in Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer, almost all the houses customarily had underground tanks for storing drinking water. 
  6. They were associated with the sloping roofs of the houses through a funnel. 
  7. Downpour falling on the rooftop tops would go down the funnel and was stored in these underground tanks. 
  8. The rainwater can be stored in the tanks until the following precipitation, making it a very dependable source of drinking water when all different sources are evaporated, especially in the summers. 
  9. Rainwater, or popular pani, usually referred to in these parts, is considered the purest type of regular water.
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