Water A Precious Resource: Class 7 Science NCERT Chapter 16

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 7 Science Chapter 16 –   Water: A Precious Resource

In the previous chapter 15, you learned about Light. In this chapter, you will be learning about Water and about its precious resources.

Quick revision notes

Water is one of the most widely recognized and useful substances around us. Water is important for the existence of all forms of life.

Subsequent to knowing the importance of water, awareness is being made by various organizations of the world. 22nd March is commended as World Water Day to draw in the attention of everyone towards the importance of conserving water. The year 2003 was perceived as ‘International year of freshwater’.

By doing such activities, we spread the message of conservation of natural resources of water and cause individuals to understand that there will be no existence without water on the earth. We also cannot deny that “on the off chance that you have water, you can think about what’s to come”. Before we discuss why water is getting scarce, we must know how much water is accessible for use on our planet.

Water Available for Use

On the off chance that we snap a photo of earth from space, it appears blue because of presence of water as sea and ocean. About 71% of surface of the earth is immersed under water. Of the complete water present on earth, 97.4% is in the seas and oceans yet it is not good for human consumption. Freshwater in a usable form is present in just a small part of all water present on the earth.

Most of us assume that there is a lot of water everywhere on over the earth. However, in fact this all water is not suitable for human consumption, not good for plants and different forms of life.

Various Forms of Water

Water exists in three forms. These three forms of water are as follows:

  • Snow or ice (solid) exists on the earth as ice caps at the poles of the earth, glaciers and snow covered mountains. These are the principle sources of water on earth.
  • Water (liquid) is present in oceans, lakes, rivers and even underground water in the earth’s top layers.
  • Clouds (gas) are found as water vapor present in the atmosphere. On condensation, it turns into droplets and precipitates on earth’s surface as downpour.

The continuous reusing of these forms of water takes place and the measure of water on the earth is kept up of constant. Most of the urban areas have a system of water supply whereas immature/lacking areas rely upon resources like rivers, lakes, ponds, handpumps, and so forth.

Groundwater as an Important Source of Water

The wells, tubewells and handpumps are the primary sources of water for some individuals. The water in these sources is the groundwater. It is the upper level of underground water which occupies all the spaces in the soil and rocks and form a water table as shown in the figure underneath:


The maximum furthest reaches of groundwater is called water table. It speaks to the profundity of water filled region at a given spot. The water table ascents and falls relying on the measure of rainwater that saturates the groundwater and how much groundwater is drawn out for irrigation and industry. The leaking down of rainwater into the groundwater is called infiltration. The groundwater accordingly gets energized by this cycle.

At certain spots, the groundwater is put away between layers of hard rock beneath the water table. This is spring which contains the groundwater usable by tubewells and handpumps. These sources be that as it may, have restricted wellsprings of water and may get depleted whenever utilized unreasonably.

Depletion of Water Table

Water drawn from underground water gets recharged by leakage of rainwater. The water table doesn’t get influenced as long as we draw a similar measure of water as is renewed by common resources like downpour.

Notwithstanding, there is various components which cause depletion of water table at an exceptionally quick rate which is actually a matter of worry for all of us. Increment in populace, mechanical and rural exercises are some normal components influencing water table. Inadequate precipitation, deforestation and diminishing in the compelling zone for drainage of water may likewise exhaust the water table.

Expanding Population

As our populace builds, we need more water for drinking, washing, cooking and cleaning. We likewise need more number of houses, workplaces, shops and streets. This implies more development work and development itself utilizes lots of water itself. More often than not, it is the groundwater. Other than this, there is less open zone which can leak in the downpour water into the ground.

In this way, ascend in populace likewise expands utilization of water. This outcomes in depletion of groundwater level to alarmingly low levels (in numerous urban areas).

Expanded Industrialisation

Water is utilized by all businesses. Nearly all that we use needs water some place in its creation cycle. The quantity of enterprises is expanding consistently. The majority of the water utilized in the enterprises is drawn from groundwater. This outcomes in depletion of water.

Horticultural Activities

More food is expected to meet the prerequisite as there is an expansion in populace. This puts more strain to the agribusiness practices. In our nation, farmers rely upon downpour, trench water or groundwater for irrigation. Canals are discovered uniquely at a couple of spots. Since downpour is regularly inconsistent, canals likewise experience the ill effects of absence of water. In this manner, farmers need to utilize groundwater for irrigation. This outcomes in depletion of groundwater.


Enormous scope deforestation has happened to oblige the developing populace to develop nourishment for them and to give space to businesses. Overgrazing by our creatures has additionally crushed huge measure of vegetation. The green inclusion of vegetation hinders the progression of water ashore and builds the ingestion of water by the dirt. Chopping down of trees and vegetation, along these lines meddles with the regular cycles by which leakage happens and the groundwater is energized and causes depletion of water.

Dispersion of Water

The dispersion of water over the globe is very uneven because of the quantity of elements. A few spots have a decent measure of downpour. Then again, these are deserts which have meager precipitation. A few locales have over the top downpours which cause floods while some others have almost no precipitation which causes dry spell. India is a huge nation and the precipitation isn’t the equivalent all over the place. In this manner, a few districts in our nation may have floods while others may experience the ill effects of dry seasons simultaneously.

Water Resources in India

India gets a great deal of precipitation (downpour and day off) comparison to the remainder of the world. The normal yearly precipitation in India is 1170 mm when contrasted with the world’s normal of 700 mm. The downpour map of India indicating normal precipitation in the various pieces of our nation.


  1. Administration of India, Copyright 2007.
  2. In light of Survey of India map with the authorization of the Surveyor General of India.
  3. The regional waters of India stretch out into the ocean to a separation of twelve nautical miles estimated from the suitable benchmark.
  4. The outside limits and coastlines of India concur with the Record/Master Copy affirmed by Survey of India.

Water Management

It is the movement of arranging, creating, conveyance and dealing with the ideal utilization of water assets. It is a subset of water cycle management. Water supply pipes spilling and a great deal of water spouting out of the funnels are the wastage of water. It is the obligation of the urban specialists to forestall such wastage of valuable water. Mismanagement or wastage may likewise occur at the degree of people too. We all intentionally or unwittingly squander water, we ought to likewise take care for it. A portion of the means which can be taken for the correct management of water are given beneath:

  1. Rainwater harvesting
  2. Bawris
  3.     Drip irrigation
  4. Rainwater Harvesting

The greater part of the rainwater just streams away. This can be dexterously used to revive the groundwater. The cutting edge structures of schools, offices, homes can introduce a rainwater harvesting framework, to store rainwater in their own premises for sometime later.

A Case Study

Bhujpur in the Kutch region of Gujarat has a flighty precipitation. The main wellspring of freshwater lies underground since waterways around there don’t have water consistently. Throughout the long term, interest for water has developed. Thus, the water table has gone down alarmingly.

In 1989, the locals alongside a non-administrative association, decided to collect rainwater.

Eighteen chech-dams were based on Ruhmavati waterway and its feeders where water permeates through the soil and revive the springs. ^ According to farmers, the wells have water now and the water that streamed into the ocean and was squandered has opened up for irrigation.

  1. Bawris

The bawris is age old technique for gathering water. These structures are as yet found in old structures, castles and fortresses. With time, the bawris fell into neglect and trash began heaping in these repositories. Nonetheless, in light of the intense deficiency of water, the bawris are being resuscitated. Today the circumstance is that inspite of sparse downpours those spots are dealing with their water needs well.

  1. Drip Irrigation

It is a strategy for watering plants by utilization of thin tubings which convey water straightforwardly to the base of a plant. This limits wastage of water. The instrument of drip irrigation is appeared in the figure given underneath:

Job for Saving Water

You can be a pioneer to show individuals about water management skills. In the event that any pipeline and faucet water is spilling there, quickly report to specialists like ‘JAL BOARD’ (in Delhi) to forestall water misfortune. Instruct individuals about water insightful propensities which can be grown slowly and will keep going deep rooted once created.

Water-wise Habits

Turn off the tap while brushing, shaving and washing hand. Open when need. This will check the overabundance stream of water into channels. Use mug and water in the container for washing as opposed to utilizing showers. Mop the floor as opposed to washing. Flood pruned plants with utilized water for washing rice and dal in the kitchen while cooking. Check no tap or funnel is spilling.

Impact of Water Scarcity on Plants

We develop numerous plants in pots in our homes. These are called pruned plants. The pruned plants are watered normally. On the off chance that the pruned plants are not watered in any event, for a couple of days, the plants will ‘wilt’ (become limp) and at last ‘evaporate’. Whenever pruned plants are not given water for a significant time, they will kick the bucket. Subsequently, adequate water is fundamental for keeping up the life of plants. Plants need water to acquire supplements from the soil and to make food by the cycle of photosynthesis.

The different impacts of water shortage on plants are

  • Water shortage will influence supplement take-up from soil by the plants.
  • The pace of photosynthesis will decay, so oxygen developed will be less.
  •     Pace of transpiration will likewise decay, so water fumes delivered in the environment by transpiration will be less, it will upset the water cycle.

Thus, to sum things up, we can say the lack of water will prompt a deficiency of food, lack of oxygen and deficiency of downpour too.

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