New Kings And Kingdoms: History Class 7 Chapter 1

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 7 History Chapter 2 –  New Kings and Kingdoms

Quick revision notes

In Chapter 1 of Class 8 NCERT book: you must have learnt about the tracing changes through a thousand years. In chapter 2: You must have learn about the New Kings and Kingdoms.

The Emergence of New Dynasties
• By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent.

The Rashtrakutas
• The Rashtrakutas in the Deccan were subordinates to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
• During the mid-eighth century, a Rashtrakuta chief called Dantidurga overthrew his Chalukya overlord.
• Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra and Kadamba Mayurasharman were Brahmanas successfully established kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan respectively.

Administration in the Kingdoms

  • Many of these new kings often shared power with their samantas as well as with associations of peasants, traders and Brahmanas.
  • Revenue in the form of land rent was collected from peasants, cattle-keepers and artisans and Traders.

Prashastis and Land Grants

  • Prashastis depicted the image that the kings wished to project about themselves.
  • These were composed by learned Brahmanas who were rewarded by grants of land.

A few significant decision administrations developed in various pieces of the subcontinent between the seventh and twelfth centuries. 

The Emergence of New Dynasties 

  • By the seventh century, there were large landowners or warrior bosses in various districts of the subcontinent. 
  • Existing rulers regularly recognized them as their samantas or subordinates. 
  • They were relied upon to bring presents for their lords or overlords and give them military help. 
  • The primary decision administrations were Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas, Rashtrakutas and Chahamans in North India and the Chola, Pandyas and 
  • Chalukyas in South India. 

Organization in the Kingdoms 

  • The lords at peak received large titles like Maharaja-adhiraja. 
  • The lords imparted capacity to their samanras, and with a relationship of laborers, merchants and Brahmanas. 
  • Assets were acquired from the makers who were convinced to give up part of what they created. 
  • These assets were utilized to back the lord’s foundation and build sanctuaries and strongholds. 
  • Functionaries for gathering income were enlisted from powerful families. 

Prashashtis and Land Grants 

  • Prashashtis reveals to us how rulers needed to portray themselves as brave and triumphant warriors. 
  • The lords frequently remunerated Brahmanas by awards of land. These were recorded on copper plates, which were given to the individuals who got the land. 

Fighting for Wealth 

  • For a considerable length of time Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala’s traditions battled for authority over Kannauj. 
  • The since quite a while ago drawn clash is referred to as a tripartite battle as three gatherings were engaged with it. 
  • Kings Mahmud of Ghazni assaulted the subcontinent multiple times between AD 1000—AD 1025. His sole reason for existing was to loot the abundance of India. He plundered sanctuaries like Somnath, Gujarat, Mahmud endowed a researcher named al-Biruni to compose a record of the subcontinent. 
  • Different lords occupied with fighting were Chauhan, who controlled over the area around Delhi and Ajmer. 
  • Chauhans were occupied with struggle with Chalukyas of Gujarat and the Gahadavalas of western UR 
  • Prithviraj III was a famous Chauhan ruler who vanquished Afghan ruler Ghori in 1191 yet lost to him in 1192. 

The Cholas 

  • Cholas were from a little group of Uraiyur. The replacements of Vijayalaya vanquished neighboring areas and the realm developed in size and force. 
  • Rajaraja I was viewed as the most remarkable Chola kings and extended power over a large portion of these regions. 
  • His child Rajendra I, vanquished Sri Lanka and nations of Southeast Asia. 
  • Cholas were large sanctuary developers. Two celebrated sanctuaries were in Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. 
  • Horticulture was very much evolved alongside different strategies for water system. 
  • Settlements of workers called or got prosperous with the spread of water system in farming. The town gathering and the Nadu played out a few managerial capacities 
  • Relationship of dealers known as nagarams likewise performed managerial capacities in the town. 
  • Engravings likewise notice about sabha. The Sabha had separate panels to take care of water system works, gardens, sanctuaries, and so on. 

During the time of seventh and twelfth centuries, numerous new administrations rose in various pieces of the subcontinent. 

The new rulers were already the enormous landowners or warriors working under the current rulers as subordinates or samantas. They progressively picked up influence and riches and from that point proclaimed themselves to be maha-Samanta, maha-mandleshwar (the incredible master of the circle or district). They were currently free masters. 

Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta boss, ousted his Chalukya overlord and played out a custom known as hiranya-garbhk (truly, the brilliant belly). It was done so as to change one’s way of life as kshatriya, regardless of whether one was not one by birth. 

As Brahmanas regularly got land awards or brahmadeya, countless Brahmana settlements developed in the Kaveri valley as in different pieces of south India. Each brahmadeya was taken care of by a get together or sabha of unmistakable Brahmana landholders which worked productively. Their choices were recorded in detail in engravings on the stone of dividers of sanctuaries. 

Relationship of merchants known as nagarams additionally sporadically performed authoritative capacities in towns. 

Engravings from Uttaramerur in Chingleput region, Tamil Nadu, reveal to us the manner by which the sabha was orgsanised. There were independent boards to care for various works like that of water system, sanctuaries, and so forth. The designation of work was chosen through a lottery framework. 

Samantas: The subordinates of rulers or overlords who used to bring presents for their rulers or overlords. 

Maha-Samanta or Maha-mandaleshwara: The Samantas who picked up influence and riches proclaimed themselves Maha-Mahabaleshwar or Maha-samantas for example the extraordinary ruler of a circle or locale. 

Maharaja-adhiraja: A high sounding title utilized for extraordinary ruler, overlord. 

Tribhuvan-chakravartin: Lord of the three universes. 

Lease: The aspect of the item that the makers—the laborers, steers attendants, craftsmans were constrained to pay to the rulers. 

Income: The assessment merchants needed to pay to their rulers. 

Prashastis: An artistic structure regularly in stanza written in recognition of the ruler portraying him as a courageous, triumphant warrior. It was principally done by the Brahmanas who were regularly compensated by awards of land for such positions. This prize was recorded on copper plates and given to the individuals who got the land. 

Sultan: An Arabic expression utilized for the ruler. 

Ur: Settlements of laborers. 

Nadu: Group of Urs for example towns shaped a huge unit called Nadu. 

Brahmadeya: The land given to the Brahmanas as an award. 

Vellanvagai: The place that is known for non-Brahmana laborer owners. 

Shalabhoga: The land for the support of a school. 

Devadana/Tirunamattukkani: The land skilled to sanctuaries. 

Pallichchhandam: The land gave to Jaina establishments. 

Nagarams: Associations of brokers. 

Sabha: The get together of Brahmanas. 

Seventh century – Rise of the new administrations. 

Mid-eighth century – Rise of Rashtrakuta boss as Kshatriya. 

1168-1192 – Prithviraja III administered over the locales around Delhi. 

1191 – Prithviraja III vanquished Muhammad Ghori. 

1192 – Prithviraja III lost a fight and was done by Muhammad Ghori. 

985 – Rajaraja I turned into an extraordinary Chola ruler. 

Fifth/sixth century – The territory of Tamil Nadu was opened up for enormous scope development.

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