Manufacturing Industries: Class 10 Geography NCERT Chapter 6

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 –  Manufacturing Industries

In the last chapter 5, you learned about Minerals and Energy Resources. The creation of goods in huge quantities after processing from crude materials is called manufacturing. Workers utilized in steel factories, vehicles, breweries, material industries, bakeries, and so on fall into secondary activities. In this Chapter 6 – Manufacturing Industries, you will principally find out about the manufacturing industries which fall in the secondary sector. 

(Manufacturing Industries: Class 10)

Significance of Manufacturing 

The manufacturing sector is considered the foundation of advancement because of the accompanying reasons: 

Manufacturing industries help in modernizing horticulture as it provides jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. 

It helps in the destruction of joblessness and destitution. 

Fare of manufactured goods expands trade and business and brings in much required unfamiliar trade. 

It helps in prospering the nation by giving a boost to the economy. 

Snappy revision notes 

I. Significance of Manufacturing : 

A. The manufacturing sector is considered the foundation of improvement by and large and financial advancement because- 

Manufacturing industries help in modernizing horticulture. 

They reduce the hefty reliance of individuals on agrarian salary by giving them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. 

Helps in the destruction of joblessness and neediness. 

It helps in bringing down provincial disparities by establishing industries in ancestral and in reverse areas. 

Exports of manufactured goods extend trade and business and bring genuinely necessary unfamiliar trade. 

India should change over its crude materials into a wide assortment of furnished goods so as to prosper. 

B. Horticulture and Industry go connected at the hip. For instance, in agro-industries, horticulture helps industries by giving crude materials, and industries give products such as water system pumps, fertilizers, pesticides, and so forth. 

C. We can rival international markets if our manufactured products are at standard in quality with international products. 

II. The commitment of Industry to National Economy: 

The desired development rate for Industry is 12% in the coming decade. The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with this goal. Government Policy interventions and restored efforts by the Industry for efficiency will help manufacturing accomplish its desired development rate. 

III. Industrial Location: 

Industries are not found all over the place. They are situated in specific places, just where they get good conditions to flourish. Industrial Location is administered primarily by the accompanying factors: 

Crude Materials 

Source of Energy 

Source of Water 

Accessibility of Capital and Finance 

Request in Market 

Skilled Laborers and Workers 

Banking and Insurance 

Transport and Communication 

Numerous industries meet up at urban centers to utilize the advantages. These are known as “agglomeration economies.” 

IV. Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries: 

A] based on Raw Materials: 

1. Agro-Based: Those industries where crude materials originate from agribusiness, for example, Cotton, Edible oil, Texitles Woolen, Jute, Silk, Sugar, Tea,etx  

2. Mineral Based: The industries where minerals are used as crude materials, for example, Iron and Steel, Cement, Aluminum, Machine Tools, and so on. 

B] Based on their Main Role: 

1. Basic Industries: Those industries which give crude material to different industries are called basic industries. These industries help the advancement of different industries, for example, Copper and Aluminum Smelting 

2. Consumer Industries: The industries which produce goods for consumers are called consumer industries. Finished goods of these industries are straightforwardly sold in the market for consumers; for example, Sugar, Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper, and so on. 

C] On the basis of Capital Investment: 

1. Small Scale Industries: Those industries where the investment of capital is less than Rupees one crore are called small scale industries, for example, Tangle, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools, and so forth. 

2. Huge Scale Industries: Those industries where the investment of capital is more than Rupees one crore are called enormous scale industries, for example, Iron and Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton Textiles, and so on. 

D] On the basis of Ownership: 

1. Open Sector: These industries are possessed, worked and kept up by Govt. for example BHEL, SAIL, IISCO 

2. Private Sector: These industries are possessed, worked, and kept up by individuals or gathering of individuals, for example, TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., and so on. 

3. Joint Sector: These industries are together run by Govt. also, gathering of individuals. It is a blend of the open and private sectors, for example, Oil India Ltd. [OIL]. 

4. Helpful Sector: These industries are claimed, worked, and kept up by suppliers of crude materials and workers of the industries, such as Sugar industries in Maharashtra, Coir industries in Kerala. 

E] based on Finished Goods [Output]: 

1. Substantial Industries: Those industries which use weighty and bulky crude materials and produce hefty goods in enormous amount are called weighty industries, for example, Copper Smelting. 

2. Light Industries: The industries which use light and small crude materials and produce light goods are called light industries, for example, Electrical, Toys, Tools, Utensils, and so on. 

V. Agro-Based Industries: 

Cotton Textile Industry:  It is the oldest agro-based industry in India. 

The first cotton plant was established in 1854 in Mumbai. 

As of now, it the largest Industry in our nation. There are around 1600 cotton material mills in our nation. Cotton material mills are predominantly gathered in Maharashtra and Gujarat because of good conditions. Significant centers are Mumbai, Pune, Ahmedabad, Surat, Rajkot, and so forth. Different centers are Agra, Kanpur, Hugli, Chennai, Madurai, and so forth. 

Three methods in India deliver cotton material: a) Handloom, b) Power-looms, and c) Mills. 

The cotton material industry involves ginning, spinning, weaving, coloring, designing, tailoring, and bundling to deliver readymade garments. 

India exports yarn and readymade garments to the USA, Japan, UK, France, Nepal, Sri Lanka, etc. 

Cotton material industries are confronting numerous problems such as a) scarcity of good quality b) fundamental cotton devel, c) old hardware, d) whimsical force supply

India is the largest maker of crude jute and jute goods. There are around 70 jute mills in our nation. 

The first jute factory was set up in Rishra [Kolkata] in 1859. 

Most of the jute mills are situated along the Hugli River in West Bengal because of ideal conditions. Jute is prime component in making rope, bags, carpets, and so on. Bihar, Tripura UP, Assam, and Tripura also have jute mills. 

There are 69 jute mills situated in a 2 km broad belt along Hooghly River. 

This zone provides numerous ideal conditions required for this Industry. 

a) Raw jute is accessible for West Bengal. West Bengal is the largest maker of jute. 

b) Raniganj Coalfields is the place from where coal is brought. 

c) Hooghly River acts as the main source for providing water for washing and cleaning jute. 

d) The warm and damp atmosphere is truly positive for the development of jute. 

e) Kolkata is a metro city that provides capital and market. 

f) Hooghly River also provides modest water transport. 

Sugar industry: 

Prior UP and Bihar were the fundamental producers of sugarcane. Subsequently, most of the sugar mills were situated in these two states as they were. However, presently, sugar mills are shifting towards Maharashtra and Karnataka because: 

a) Per hectare creation of sugarcane is higher in southern India. Black soil is very suitable for the development of sugarcane. 

b) The Content of Sugarcose in the sugarcane is higher in Maharashtra and Karnataka. It means more sugar can be delivered for less quantity of sugarcane. 

c) In southern states, Mills and machines are new. New and present-day machines increase profitability. 

d) In southern states, The crushing season for sugarcane is comparatively longer, 

e) In southern states, Cooperative sugar mills are running successfully.

VI Mineral-Based Industries: 

Iron and Steel Industry and its problems: 

This Industry is called a basic Industry because it provides crude material to numerous industries such as machine tools, transport hardware, construction material, etc. 

It is also called a hefty Industry because crude materials [iron mineral, coal, limestone] are bulky. 

Iron metal blended in with limestone is smelted in the blasting heater using coking coal to create pig iron. The proportion of iron metal, limestone, and coking coal were used in 4:2:1. Pig iron is blended in with manganese, chromium, and nickel, which make it stronger steel. 

Maximum of the steel plants are situated in the Chotanagpur area because of its positive conditions. 

Significant coordinated steel plants are Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Bhilai, Burnpur, and so forth. 

India produces around 33 million tons of steel each year, even though the per capita consumption of steel is low, for example, 32 kg. It is low because India has a low monetary and industrial turn of events. 

Today steel industries in India are confronting numerous problems: a) High cost of creation, b) Limited accessibility of coking coal, c) Low efficiency of work, 

  1. High supply of vitality
  2. Limited trials are found in a specif
  3. A lot of India just
  4. Irregularucture like transport

Communication, and so on. 

It is light, corrosion-resistant and a decent

Aluminum Smelting: 

  • blended in with different metals. 
  • It is used to fabricate aircraft, utensils, and wires. 
  • Major sources are situated in Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala, UP, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. 

Chemical Industry: 

  • Contributes around 3 percent of yearly GDP. 
  • It is the third-largest industry in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world in terms of size. 

Natural and inorganic sectors of the industry are quickly developing. Natural chemicals incorporate petrochemicals. Inorganic chemicals incorporate sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, soda ash, caustic soda, etc. 

Compost Industry: 

India is the third-largest maker of nitrogenous fertilizers. 

The compost industry is centered around creating nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers, and ammonium phosphate and complex fertilizers. Complex fertilizers have a blend of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). Potash is altogether imported because India does not have any reserves of monetarily reasonable potash or potassium compounds. 

VII.Cement Industry: 

The cement industry requires bulky crude materials like limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum. 

There are many cement plants in Gujarat beIt is the second most mainstream metallurgical industry in India. 

The crude material used is a bulky, dim reddish stone known as bauxite. 

It is light, corrosion-resistant, and a decent conductor of heat and is moldable. 

It becomes stronger when the cause of the vicinity to ports. 

There are 128 enormous and 323 small scale cement plants in India. 

Improvement in quality has discovered the Indian cement, a promptly accessible market in East Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. This industry is doing admirably in terms of creation as well as fare. 

VIII Automobile Industry: 

After progression, many automobile manufacturers set their base in India. 

There are 15 manufacturers of cars in number and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of business vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers. 

Delhi,Pune, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, and so forth are the major centers of the automobile industry. IX Information Technology and Electronics Industry: 

Bangalore is the electronic capital of India. Mumbai,Chennai Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore are the other significant centers. There are 18 software innovation parks in the nation, and they give single window service and high information communication to software experts. 

This industry had created countless work. Upto 31 March 2005, more than 1,000,000 persons were utilized in the IT industry. Because of the fast development of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing), this sector has been a major worker of unfamiliar trade. 

X Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation: 

  1. a) Air pollution is caused by the emission of CO2, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and so on. Chimneys of the industries produce heat prompting Global Warming and Green House Effect. The continuous use of CFC in various industrial products depletes the ozone layer, which filters the sun’s bright rays. 
  2. b) Dumping of natural and inorganic industrial waste into water bodies pollutes the water. Industries that produce paper, mash, chemical, calfskin, acids, dyes, fertilizers, and so on create lots of harmful material that kills oceanic life. 
  3. c) The high-intensity sound created by running machines, sirens, boring, fans, and so forth leads to noise pollution. It causes aggravation, hearing impairment, coronary failure, and so forth among the close by residents. 
  4. d) Mining action to get crude material for industries also degrades nature. Land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, waterlogging, and so on are included under minning activities. 

XI Methods for Controlling Environmental Pollution and Degradation: 

(Manufacturing Industries: Class 10)

  1. a) Industries should be situated with cautious arranging and better design. 
  2. b) Quantity of smoke can be reduced by using oil instead of coal. 
  3. c) Non-customary sources of vitality should be used instead of fossil fuels. 
  4. d) Modern gear should be used, which controls, filters, and separates destructive materials from the waste. 
  5. e) Wastewater should be appropriately treated before discharging into rivers. 
  6. f) The landfilling strategy should be received for the dumping of waste. 
  7. g) Polluting industries should be found away from towns and cities.
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