Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic: Class 6 History NCERT Chapter 6

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 6 History Chapter 6 – Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic

In the previous chapter 5, we studied different types of Vedas and learnt about Rigveda in detail. We also studied about burials and how they help us in knowing more about the lives of people from that time. In this chapter of NCERT class 6 history: Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic, we will learn how men became kings and how they ruled the kingdom. We will also look at changes in agriculture in the kingdom.

Quick revision notes


The ground-breaking lords who performed huge penances and later administered bigger regions named as Janapadas. The expression “Janapada” actually signifies ‘traction of a clan’. A Janapada could be a republic like Vajji or a government like Magadha.


Later, Vedic writings like Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda referenced certain guidelines about the general public. There were various gatherings in the general public, for example, ministers and warriors, ranchers, herders, merchants, craftspersons and workers.

Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic: Vedas

Varna Hierarchy:

The ministers separated individuals into four gatherings called vamas. Every varna had various arrangements of capacities.

Determination of the Rulers:

In antiquated India, a portion of the rajas was most likely picked by the Jana, the individuals. A few changes with respect to the appointment of the Raja occurred around 3,000 years prior. A few men performed Ashvamedha penance and came to be perceived as rajas.


This was the strategy for the rule in early hundreds of years where citizenry met in congregations and chose about the organization through conversations and discussions.


A Mahajanapada was generally administered from its capital city. There was serious contention among the Mahajanapadas, bringing about regular wars. Enormous dividers made of mud, stone, wood or blocks were utilized to brace these capital urban areas.


Money was required by new rajas for building strongholds and armed forces. They began gathering ordinary duties from the individuals. The expense could be paid either in real money or in kind.

Changes in Agriculture:

Agriculture succeeded in a large portion of the Mahajanapadas as they were situated in rich zones. Two significant changes came in horticulture. One was the expanding utilization of the iron furrow. Besides, individuals started transplanting paddy which prompted expanded creation.

Around 3000 years back, there were some better approaches to picking ‘rajas’. A few men became ‘rajas’ by performing huge penances. One of such ceremonies was ‘ASHVAMEDHA’ (horse penance). The ‘Raja’ was a significant figure.

Realms were normally called the ‘Janapadas’, which were controlled by the ‘rajas’. Individuals lived in cabins and kept creatures. They grew an assortment of harvests.

Some ‘janapadas’ later turned out to be a higher priority than others, and they were called ‘Mahajanapadas’. The capital urban areas were sustained.

The new ‘rajas’ started looking after militaries. Instalments were made utilizing punch-marked coins.


The ‘rajas’ required assets to construct fortresses and to look after armed forces. Authorities should gather charges from individuals. Duties were as yields, work, creatures and their produce, and so on.

Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic: coins

There were changes in farming as well. The utilization of Iron Plowshares expanded, accordingly improving grain creation. Individuals began transplanting paddy. This likewise expanded creation.

Magadha turned into the most significant ‘mahajanapada’ in around 200 years. Transport, water supplies, ripeness, backwoods, elephants, mines, and so on made Magadha significant.

The two ground-breaking leaders of Magadha, Bimbisara and Ajatasattu utilized every single imaginable intend to vanquish other ‘janapadas’. Rajagriha was the capital of Magadha. Later it was Pataliputra (presently Patna).

Vajji was another realm with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar). It had an alternate type of government called ‘gana’/’sangha’, which had not one, yet numerous rulers. These rulers performed customs together and met in congregations. Buddhist books portray life in the ‘sanghas’.

‘Rajas’ of incredible realms attempted to vanquish the ‘sanghas’.

A closer look at Vajji 

Vajji, with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar), was under a distinctive type of government, known as Gana or sangha. In Gana, there were numerous rulers. Everyone was known as a raja. These rajas performed customs together. They additionally met in assemblies and decided what must be done and how through debate and discussion.


(horse penance) This was custom where a pony was let free to meander uninhibitedly and it was protected by the ‘rajas’ men. In the event that the pony entered different realms, there would be a duel between the two rulers.


Taxes on crops (1/6 of the produce) was called ‘bhaga’.


A type of government followed in the realm of Vajji.


Kingdoms were alluded to as ‘janapadas’. (‘jana’ – land, ‘pada’ – foot).


The most significant of the ‘janapadas’.


Each of the four classifications of society, in view of occupation and chose by birth, was alluded to as ‘Varnas’.

Around 3000 years prior (around 1000 B.C.) – new sorts of ‘rajas’.

Around 2500 years prior (around 500 B.C.) – arrangement of ‘mahaj’anapadas’.

Around 2300 years prior (around 300 B.C.) – the intrusion of Alexander the Great.

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