Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Class 11 Biology NCERT Chapter 10

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 – Cell Cycle and Cell Division

In the previous chapter 9: Biomolecules, you studied about that our bodies are comprised of different of these complex biomolecules. In this chapter: Cell Cycle and Cell Division you will learn about Cell cycle and cell division structure the premise of life.

Do you know the reason for malignant growth is identified with cell cycle? The malignancy cells can’t be managed by the cell cycle and in this way continually partitions even without the necessary growth factors. This is the motivation behind why it is hard to execute malignant growth cells. Let us get familiar with the cell cycle.

Cell Cycle

Cell cycle and cell division structure the premise of life. Growth, recovery, and generation rely on cell cycle and cell division. In any case, what happens when this cell cycle is upset or when the cells neglect to direct the cell cycle? It can prompt uncontrolled cell growth and the division which can at last lead to malignancy 

Researchers and microscopists have realized cell cycle and cell division for more than hundred years. In any case, it was the spearheading and progressive work of Alma Howard and Stephen Pelc during the 1950s that uncovered DNA replication occurred at a specific period of the phone cycle. They exhibited that cell cycle is unmistakable and separate from the mitosis procedure.

Browse more Topics under Cell Cycle And Cell Division

  • Meiosis
  • Mitosis

Quick revision notes

Cell cycle (cell division cycle) is an arranged succession of occasions happening in a cell. Cell cycle brings about cell growth and DNA replication in this manner shaping two little girl cells. It is a fundamental procedure for the arrangement of a develop life form from single-celled prepared eggs. The procedure of cell cycle advances reestablishment and recovery of hair, platelets, skin, and certain inner organs. The development of little girl cells by cell division shows the beginning of another interphase cycle.

Different Stages of a Cell Cycle

Stages of Cell

Stages of Cell Cycle

I = Interphase, M = Mitosis; inner ring: M = Mitosis, G1 = Gap 1, G2 = Gap 2, S = Synthesis; not in ring: G0 = Gap 0/Resting.

A cell parts in the wake of finishing a succession of occasions. For instance, a cell grows, duplicate its DNA (hereditary material), and afterward at long last partitions into two little girl cells. The cell cycle is named a cycle on the grounds that the occasions rehash itself. In the wake of finishing one complete round the recently framed little girl cells start a similar procedure once more. The two key periods of a cell cycle are interphase and M stage or the mitotic stage. 

Each stage will be effectively initiated on appropriate movement and finishing of the past stages. In any case, in the event that a phone is briefly quit advancing or some way or another quit partitioning, at that point the phone go into another state named as G0 stage, additionally called a “condition of calmness.” Let’s examine the means or stages in subtleties.


In this stage, the cell grows and creates a duplicate of the hereditary material (DNA). Interphase can be additionally partitioned into three unmistakable stages: G1 stage, S stage (blend), G2 stage. The cell cycle starts after the division of mother cell into two new girl cells. On the off chance that the recently shaped cell needs to proceed onward, at that point it must gap itself. 

Be that as it may, there are sure beginning advances that happen before the real division. In these stages, the new girl cell sets itself up for the division. The interphase generally appears to be a resting stage between the cell divisions yet on opposite, it is a stage with various different exercises. The span of interphase may shift from 12 to 24 hours in the mammalian tissues.

Sub-phases of Interphase

  • Hole 0 (G0) Phase: At times the cell will leave the cycle and briefly quit isolating. This is known as a resting period. It tends to be for a brief timeframe or long more perpetual period. For instance neurons subsequent to arriving at the end phase of improvement quit partitioning and go into a more lasting resting stage. 
  • Hole 1 (G1) Phase: It is likewise named as the principal hole stage. In this stage, the phone begins growing and amplifies truly. It shapes the duplicate of organelles, delivers all the important sub-atomic structure squares, for example, RNA and furthermore orchestrates proteins that are fundamental in later stages. Now, a control component is enacted to guarantee legitimate DNA combination. The control component is named as the G1 checkpoint. 
  • S Phase: In this stage, a cell creates a total duplicate of DNA in the core to deliver two comparable girl cells. DNA replication starts in the S stage or the union stage. The microtubule-sorting out structure (centrosome) is likewise duplicated in this stage. The centrosome is the structure that helps in isolating the DNA during M stage. 
  • Hole 2 (G2) stage: In G2 stage the cell grows further, produce proteins and organelles and starts adjusting the constituents of the cell for mitosis stage. Toward the finish of the G2 stage, another checkpoint is enacted called as G2 Checkpoint. G2 Checkpoint guarantees everything is prepared for division and M stage. The finish of the G2 stage closes when the mitosis procedure starts.

Interphase can be summed up as the stage between two M (mitotic) stage.

M phase

n this stage, the cell parts its DNA into two duplicates. Also, the division of the cytoplasm happens along these lines framing two girl cells. M stage can be classified into karyokinesis (the division of cell chromosome) and cytokinesis (the division of cell cytoplasm to frame new girl cells). M stage is arranged into two unmistakable stages: mitosis and cytokinesis. In this stage, the cell isolates the copied DNA and the cytoplasm into two new little girl cells.

  • Mitosis: The cell’s “atomic DNA” is dense into chromosomes. These noticeable chromosomes are pulled separated with the assistance of mitotic axles (the unique structures shaped from microtubules). Mitosis is additionally partitioned into 4 separate stages including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. 
  • Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis starts after mitosis is finished. In this stage, the cytoplasm of the cell is separated into two little girl cells.

Cell Cycle Exit and Gap 0 Phase

At this point we realize the cell cycle brings about the arrangement of two new little girl cells. Presently the inquiry emerges what befalls the recently framed little girl cells after one complete round of cell cycle? This is totally subject to what cells are partitioning. There are specific sorts of cells that partition rapidly and in these kinds of cells, the new little girl cells promptly go into another round of cell division cycle. Models incorporate undeveloped organism and tumor. 

On the other hand, there are different kinds of cells that separate at a moderate pace and some of the time totally quit partitioning and go into another stage called as G0 stage or resting stage. The cell will proceed with its standard capacity. For example, neuron after the end stage doesn’t partition yet keep on leading signs.

Duration of the Cell Cycle

The cell cycle term will shift in various sorts of cells. The G1 stage will proceed for around 11 hours, S stage will proceed for 8 hours, G2 stage for almost 4 hours and the M stage for about one hour in a quickly separating human cell with cell cycle length of 24 hours. A few cells may isolate quicker than human cells while a few cells may set aside more effort to finish a whole cell cycle. For instance “growing yeast” will finish the whole cell cycle (4 phases of the cell cycle) in around an hour and a half.


Q: Which is the longest period of the cell cycle?

  1. G2
  2. G1
  3. S
  4. G0

Sol: The right answer is alternative “B”. G1 stage is typically the longest period of cell cycle. G1 stage is the principal hole stage where the phone is getting ready for different phases of cell cycle. Additionally, G1 stage follows the mitosis cell division. It is the ideal opportunity for the recently framed cells to grow before the DNA replication. In this way, the G1 stage is the longest. G1 stage can change in the diverse kind of cells. It can keep going for quite a long time, for example, prokaryotic cells, hours, for example, yeast or once in a while for a considerable length of time, for example, liver cells.

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