Vital Villages, Thriving Towns: Class 6 History NCERT Chapter 9

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 6 History Chapter 9 – Vital Villages, Thriving Towns 

In the last chapter 8, We learnt about Ashoka who was one of the greatest rulers known to history, his inscriptions which were inscribed on pillars, as well as on rock surfaces and his ideologies. In this chapter of NCERT class 6:Vital Villages, Thriving Towns, We will study the start of the growing usage of iron tools like axes, ploughshare etc. We will also look at the earliest writings, coins and discovery of cities.

Quick revision notes

Iron Tools and Agriculture: Iron came into utilization around 3000 years prior. Around 2500 years back, the utilization of iron devices expanded. These included tomahawks for clearing backwoods and growing areas and iron plowshare in expanding creation.

Landowners and Laborers:

In the south, enormous landowners (Vellalar), cultivators (Ezhava), landless workers and slaves (kadaisiyar and adimai) were among the primary network individuals. In the northern parts, the town headman (grama bhojaka) was innate, who was the greatest landowner and used to gather charges for the King.

The Earliest Tamil Compositions:

Sangam writing was created 2300 years back. It was called as Sangao on the grounds that it was composed and gathered in Assemblies known as Sangams of Poets which were held in the city of Madurai.

Discoveries Of Cities:

Jatakas were stories made by customary individuals, yet composed and safeguarded by Bud chest priests. Different sorts of proof to get some answers concerning life in a portion of the early urban areas are artists’ cut scenes portraying individuals’ lives.

Urban areas and Travel Accounts:

Another method of getting some answers concerning early urban areas is from the records of mariners and explorers who visited these urban areas and realms.


Punch stamped coins, which were being used for around 500 years, were called so on the grounds that the structures were punched on to the metal-silver or copper.

Vital Villages, Thriving Towns: Coins

Urban areas and their Functions:

Mathura was significant in light of the fact that it was situated on the intersection of two significant courses of movement and exchange from the North-West toward the East and from the North to South. Mathura was additionally a creation focus of fine models.

Specialities and Craft people:

Extremely fine ceramics known as the Northern Black Polished product were delivered. There were celebrated focuses, for example, Varanasi in the North, and Madurai in the South.


Between 2200 and 1900 years back, Arikamedu was a seaside settlement where boats emptied merchandise from removed grounds. An enormous block structure, which may have been a stockroom, was found at the site.

In the Indian subcontinent, utilization of iron started around 3000 years back. It grew an ever-increasing number of 2500 years prior. Tomahawks and the iron plowshare got well known.

New apparatuses and the arrangement of transplantation expanded creation, and water system likewise came into utilization.

In the Tamil locale, there existed three sorts of individuals—the huge landowners, the normal cultivators and the landless workers (counting slaves).

In northern India, the town headman, free ranchers, labourers, and so on lived in towns.

The Jatakas were stories that were made probably by normal individuals and recorded and saved by Buddhist priests.

These stories give light on the life of individuals during circumstances such as the present.

Ring wells (columns of pots or artistic rings orchestrated one on the head of the other) have been found in a few urban areas. They were most likely utilized as latrines or channels and landfills.

Records of mariners and voyagers delineate life in early urban areas. The record of an obscure Greek mariner tells about Bharuch.

Archaeologists have discovered a few coins having a place with this period. Plans were punched onto the metal to set them up.

Mathura, a significant settlement for over 2500 years. It was situated at the intersection of two significant travel and shipping lanes and turned into the capital of the Kushanas around 2000 years back. It was additionally a strict focus.

Archaeologists have additionally discovered proof for makes, similar to the incredibly fine earthenware called Northern Black Polished Ware. There were renowned material communities at Varanasi and Madurai. Craftspersons and traders shaped affiliations called ‘sanctums’, that helped them in their work.

Somewhere in the range of 2200 and 1900 years back, Arikamedu was a seaside settlement.

Ring Wells:

Rows of pots or earthenware rings masterminded one over the other is known as ring wells.

Sangam’ Literature:

Ancient Tamil messages that were created in congregations called ‘Sangams’ have been alluded to as the ‘Sangam’ writing.

Vital Villages, Thriving Towns


A relationship of craftspersons and vendors was called ‘shreni’. ‘Shrenis’ gave preparing, crude material, and so forth. They likewise filled in as banks.

The Jatakas:

These were stories most likely created by conventional individuals and afterwards recorded and protected by Buddhist priests.

Around 3000 years prior. (around 1000 B.C.) –

start of the utilization of iron in the Indian subcontinent.

2500 years prior (around 500 B.C.) –

increment in the utilization of iron, improvement of urban communities and the punch-stamped coins.

2300 years prior (around 300 B.C.) –

the ‘Sangam’ writing.

Somewhere in the range of 2200 and 1900 years prior between C.100 B.C. what’s more, C.100 A.D.) –

settlement in Arikamedu (in Puducherry).


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