The Mughal Empire: History Class 7 Chapter-4

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 7 History Chapter 4 –  The Mughal Empire 

Quick revision notes

In Chapter 3 of Class 8 NCERT book: Delhi Sultans you must have learnt about Delhi Empire. In chapter 4: You must have learn about the Mughal Empire.

  • From the latter half of the sixteenth century, the Mughals expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi
    → Until in the seventeenth century, the Mughals created huge empire which controlled nearly all of the subcontinent.
  • They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that lasted even after their rule.

Who were the Mughals?

  • The Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers, Genghis Khan and Timur.

Mughal Military Campaigns

Babur (1526-1530)

  • Babur, the first Mughal emperor (1526-1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old.
  • In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
  • In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies at Khanua.
  • In 1528, he defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi;
  • He established control over Agra and Delhi before his death.

Humayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556)

  • He was defeated by Sher Khan at Chausa in 1539 and Kanauj in 1540 forcing him to flee to Iran.
  • He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after an accident in a building.

Akbar (1556-1605)

  • Akbar was 13 years old when he became emperor.
  • After 1570, Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan.
  • He launched military campaign against the Suris and other Afghans, against the neighbouring kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his half-brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs.
  • In 1568 the Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569 Ranthambhor.

Babur (1526-1530) was the first Mughal sovereign, who turned into the leader of old Delhi by overcoming Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526. From the last 50% of the sixteenth century, the Mughals extended their realm from Agra and Delhi, until in the seventeenth century they controlled about the entirety of the subcontinent. The heritage left by them stands unrivaled. 

Who were the Mughals? 

The Mughals were relatives of two extraordinary genealogies of rulers. From their mom’s side, they were relatives of Genghis Khan and from the dad’s side, they were the relatives of Timur. 

Mughal Military Campaigns 

  • Babur, the first Mughal head, caught Delhi in 1526 by overcoming Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat. 
  • Humayun caught Delhi in 1555. 
  • Akbar captured Chittor (1568), Ranthambor (1569), Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Kashmir, Berar Khandesh, and so on (1585-1605). 
  • Jahangir took crusade against Sikhs and Ahoms. 
  • Shah Jahan won Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. 
  • Aurangzeb pursued a long fight in the Deccan. 

Mughal Traditions of Succession 

  • The Mughals didn’t trust in the standard of primogeniture, where the oldest child acquired his dad’s bequest. 
  • They followed the custom of coparcenary legacy or a division of the legacy among all the children. 

Mughal Relationships with different Rulers 

  • The Mughal rulers battled continually against rulers who wouldn’t acknowledge their position. 
  • Be that as it may, as the Mughals turned out to be incredible numerous different rulers likewise went along with them intentionally. The Rajputs served the Mughals willfully. 
  • Mughals gave mansab and jagirs which helped them to extend their regions. 
  • The fundamental wellspring of pay accessible to Mughal rulers was charge on the produce of the proletariat. 

Akbar’s Policies 

  • Akbar’s works are found in the book Akbarnama composed by Abul Fazal. 
  • Akbar separated his realm into regions called subas administered by a Subedar. 
  • Akbar’s aristocrats instructed huge militaries and approached a lot of income. 
  • While Akbar was at Fatehpur Sikri, he began a conversation on religion with the ulemas, Brahmanas, Jesuit ministers who were Roman Catholics and Zoroastrians. 
  • The conversations occurred in the ibadat khana. 
  • It drove Akbar to the possibility of Sulh-I-kul or all inclusive harmony. 
  • Shah Jahan and Jahangir additionally followed this standard. 
  • Akbar understood those strict researchers stressed customs and doctrines were regularly biased people. 
  • Abul Fazl, one of the Akbar’s companions and retainers composed a three-volume history of Akbar’s rule, named Akbar-nama. 

The Mughals Empire in the seventeenth Century and After 

  • The managerial and military effectiveness of the Mughal Empire prompted incredible monetary and business success. 
  • The Mughal rulers and their mansabdars spent a lot of their salary on pay rates and products. 
  • Mansabdars got their pay rates as income tasks called jagirs. 
  • The primary wellspring of salary to Mughal rule was the assessment gotten on the produce of the proletariat. 
  • The wealthier lower class and distinctive gatherings, the shippers and brokers benefitted in this financial world. 
  • Essential makers, nonetheless, lived in destitution. 
  • Before the end of the seventeenth century, the authority of the Mughal Empire declined which offered ascend to numerous autonomous territories like Hyderabad and Awadh. 

The Mughals were extraordinary rulers. They made an immense realm. Mughals captured the subcontinent in the 17th seventeenth beginning their realm from Agra to Delhi from the mid sixteenth century. 

Babur was the first Mughal head, He turned into the leader of Delhi by vanquishing Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526. He likewise settled his power over Agra. Be that as it may, he was unable to control for quite a while. After his passing in 1530, his child Humayun turned into the second Mughal ruler. 

Sherkhan crushed Humayun at Chausa in 1539 and Kanauj in 1540 constraining him to escape to Iran. He recovered Delhi in 1555 with the assistance of Safarid Shah yet passed on soon a short time later. 

Akbar turned into the ruler of Delhi at 13 years old. He was equipped and before long started to deal with the whole domain effectively. In 1568 he held onto the Sisodiya capital of Chittor and in 1569 Ranthambhor. During the period 1570-1585 he began military mission in Gujarat which was trailed by crusades in the east in Bihar. Bengal and Orissa. During the period 1585-1605 to Akbar extended his domain. 

Jahangir turned into the ruler in 1605. He proceeded with the military missions began by Akbar. 

After Jahangir Shah Jahan assumed the responsibility for the Mughal Empire. He proceeded Mughal crusades in the Deccan. 

Aurangzeb’s rule ranges from 1658 to 1707. His mission against Maratha Chieftain Shivaji was significant. At first, Aurangzeb got achievement. In any case, soon Shivaji pronounced himself a free ruler in the wake of being offended by Aurangzeb. He likewise continued his missions against the Mughals. 

The Mughal Empire Class 7 Notes History Chapter 4

Ancestry: History of ages of one’s family in grouping. 

Mansabdar: A person who holds a mansab meaning a position or rank. 

Zat: Ranks and pay were dictated by a mathematical worth called Zat. 

Jagir: Mansabdars got their pay rates as income tasks called Jagirs. Zamindars. The headmen or the neighborhood tribal leader. 

Zabt: Each region during Mughals was isolated into income hovers with its own timetable of income rates for singular yields. This income framework was called as Zabt. Suba and Subadar. The realm was separated into areas called Subas which were administered by a Subadar who conveyed both political and military capacities. 

Diwan: The budgetary official of a Suba was called as Diwan. 

1237: Genghis Khan kicked the bucket. 

1404: Jimur passed on. 

1526-1530: Reign of Babur. He caught Delhi in 1526 by overcoming Ibrahim Lodi and established the framework of the Mughal Empire. 

1539: Sher Shah crushed Humayun at Chausa. 

1540: Sher Shah again crushed Humayun, this time at Kanauj. 

1555: Humayun recovered Delhi 

1556: Akbar turned into the Mughal Emperor at 13 years old. 

1568: Akbar seized Sisodiya capital of Chittor 

1569: Akbar seized Ranthambhore 

1605-1627: Jahangir managed over Delhi as the Mughal ruler 

1627-1658: Shah Jahan ruled over Delhi. 

1632: Ahmadnagar was added by Shah Jahan 

1658-1707: Aurangzeb ruled over Delhi. 

1685: Aurangzeb added Bijapur 

1687: Aurangzeb added Golconda 
1698: Aurangzeb battled in the Deccan against the Marathas.

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