The Delhi Sultans: History Class 7 Chapter-3
Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 7 History Chapter 3 – The Delhi Sultans
Quick revision notes
In Chapter 2 of Class 8 NCERT book: you must have learnt about New Kings and Kingdom. In chapter 3: You must have learn about the Delhi Empires.
Under the Tomaras and Chauhans Delhi became an important commercial centre. Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed several temples. Coins called dehliwal were minted here and had a wide circulation. Transformation of Delhi into a capital that controlled vast areas of the subcontinent started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate at the beginning of the 13th century. The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area that we now know as Delhi.
Finding Out about the Delhi Sultans
Tarikh (singular)/tawarikh (plural) are valuable histories, written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans that provide a lot of information. It was written by learned men- secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers, who both recounted events and advised rulers on governance, emphasising the importance of the just rule. Following ideas to keep in mind:
(1) the authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages.
(2) They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards.
(3) These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birthright and gender distinctions.
Delhi previously turned into the capital of a realm under the Tomara Rajputs, who were vanquished by Chauhan (likewise called Chahamanas) of Ajmer.
The change of Delhi into a capital that controlled a tremendous territory of the subcontinent began with the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate toward the start of the thirteenth century.
Tomars: Early twelfth century 1165.
Chauhans: 1165-1192 Prithviraj Chauhan: 1175-1192
Under the Tomaras and Chauhans, Delhi turned into a significant business place.
Slave Dynasty: 1206-1290
In 1236, Razia, the girl of Sultan Iltutmish, turned into the Sultan of Delhi. She was eliminated from the seat in 1240.
Khilji Dynasty: 1290-1320
Outer wilderness was the following period of development which began with Alauddin Khilji in southern India. Alauddin Khilji, the most significant leader of Khilji line, presented the arrangement of market control and authoritative measures so as to keep up an enormous standing armed force.
Tughlaq Dynasty: 1320-1414
Outer outskirts finished with Muhammad-canister Tughluq and he presented three ventures – Shifting of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, the presentation of token money, bringing the land charge up in the Doab district to 50%—all of which fizzled and debilitated his position.
Sayyid Dynasty: 1414-1451 (It was the main Shia tradition)
Lodi Dynasty: 1451-1526
More about the Delhi Sultans
- Engravings, coins and design give a great deal of data.
- Further significant sources are ‘chronicles’, Tarikh (particular)/tawarikh (plural), written in Persian, the language of organization under the Delhi Sultans.
- The creators of tawarikh were scholarly men; secretaries overseers, writers and subjects who both related occasions and prompted rulers on administration, stressing the significance of the simply rule.
From Garrison Town to Empire
- In the mid thirteenth century the control of the Delhi Sultans seldom went past vigorously braced towns involved by battalions.
- Delhi’s power was tested by Mongols and by lead representatives who revolted at any indication of the Sultan’s shortcoming.
- The extension of Delhi Sultanate occurred under the rule of Balban, Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq.
Organization and Consolidation
- To have solid lead representatives the early Delhi Sultans, particularly Iltutmish’ supported their uncommon slaves bought for military assistance called ‘Wrap’ in Persian.
- The Khiljis and Tughluqs kept on utilizing Bandage and furthermore raised individuals of humble birth, who were their customers, to high positions like lead representatives and officers.
- The Khiljis and Tughluqs selected military administrators as legislative leaders of domains of shifting sizes.
- These terrains were called iqta and their holder was called muqti or iqtadar. The obligation of muqtis was to lead military missions and keep up peace in their iqtas.
- Consequently, muqtis gathered the incomes of their tasks as compensation. They additionally paid their troopers from this income.
- Under Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad, Tughluq bookkeepers were delegated to check the sum gathered by the muqtis.
- As Delhi Sultans brought the hinterland of the urban communities under their influence, they constrained the samants and the rich landowners to acknowledge their position.
- The assault of Mongols under Genghis Khan constrained Khiljis and Tughluqs to prepare a huge standing armed force in Delhi.
The Sultanate in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
- The Tughluq, the Sayyid and Lodi administrations governed from Delhi and Agra until 1526.
- By then Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and whole South India had Independent rulers who had set up thriving states and prosperous capitals.
- New decision administrations like the Afghans and Rajputs likewise emerged during the period.
- In 1526, Mughals built up their domain.
- Sher Shah Suri tested and crushed the Mughal sovereign Humayun. He caught Delhi and built up his own line. Despite the fact that, he managed for just fourteen years (1540-1555) yet his organization turned into the model followed by the incomparable Mughal sovereign Akbar (1556-1605), when he combined the Mughal Empire.
Delhi turned into the capital of a realm under the Tomara Rajputs.
It was uniquely under the standard of the Tomars and Chauhans that Delhi prospered as a significant business place.
The city was possessed by numerous Jaina vendors who additionally built various sanctuaries.
Coins, known as dehliwal, were printed here and had a wide course.
Delhi Sultanate assumed the most fundamental job in the change of Delhi into a capital which controlled huge zones of the subcontinent.
Raziyya, the girl of Sultan lltutmish, turned into the Sultan of Delhi in 1236 yet she was deposed uniquely in 1240 just for being a lady and was inadmissible to the aristocrats. Indeed, even a.famous recorder of the age, Minhaj-I Siraj, perceived her as more capable than every one of her siblings yet was not happy with her, just for her being a woman.
The Rulers of Delhi
Dhaliwal: where coins were printed.
Tawarikh: Plural of Tarikh.
Bequest: It alludes to the benefits asserted by virtue of the birth.
Gender qualifications: Social and natural contrasts among people.
Hinterland: It alludes to the land nearby a city or port that gracefully it with merchandise and enterprises.
Army town: It alludes to a town which is strengthened with officers.
Mosque: It is known as a masjid in Arabic, and artistically implies a spot where a Muslim prostrates in worship to Allah.
Namaz: It alludes to the supplication offered by a Muslim.
Imam: The profound pioneer of the Muslims.
Customer: Someone who is under the security of another, a ward or holder on.
Iqta: The regions under the military commandants were known as iqta.
Kharaj: The expense on development was known as Kharaj.
Bandagan: The early Delhi Sultans particularly lltutmish supported their slaves bought for military help. These slaves were known as bandagan in Persian.
Early twelfth century – 1165: Reign of Tomara Rajputs.
1175-1192: Reign of Prithviraj Chauhan.
1206-1210: Reign of Qutbuddin Aybak.
1236: Raziyya became Sultan.
1240: Raziyya was ousted.
1296-1316: Reign of Alauddin Khalji.
1324-1351: Reign of Muhammad Tughluq.
1351-1388: Reign of Firuz Shah Tughiuq.
1414-1421: Reign of Khizr Khan having a place with Sayyid line.
1451-1489: Reign of Bahlul Lodi.
1540-1555: Sher Shah administered over Delhi.