Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology NCERT Chapter 4

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 –  Reproductive Health 

In the previous chapter 3, You studied the process of reproduction in humans which involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. In this chapter, you will understand the importance of reproductive health and reproductive diseases.

Infertility is the inability to give birth or conceive a baby. Infertility is on a slow ascent in India. Strange right? since India is among the most populated nations on the planet. In any case, reports propose that infertility has become one of the basic issues in India with more than 10 to 14 per cent of Indian populace experiencing the torment of not having a kid. On account of the most recent improvement in science and technology now it is feasible for any couple to have a kid with reproductive technology. 

Quick revision notes

As per WHO, reproductive health implies complete prosperity in all parts of reproduction for that are physical, behavioural, emotional and social. 

Reproductive Health: Problem and Strategies 

  • India was among the principal nations in the world to start the program “family planning” started in 1951. 
  • Reproductive health in a society is a critical piece of general health. 
  • Improved projects covering more extensive reproduction-related zones are presently in operation under the name ‘Reproductive and child health care (RCH) program.
  • Health and education of youngsters and marriage and kid bearing during progressively developed phases of life are significant attributes to the reproductive health of the general public. 

Measures taken by Government : 

  • Through the assistance of sound visuals and print media. 
  • Indeed, even relatives, close relations are awarded. 
  • Sex education was acquainted in schools to increase awareness.
  • Appropriate data about reproductive organs, puberty and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted illnesses, AIDS and so on. 


It is a method used to discover chromosomal irregularities in growing embryos by utilizing amniotic liquid. 

  • It is additionally misused to check fetal sex dependent on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic liquid encompassing the growing embryo

Population Explosion and Birth Control 

Improved personal satisfaction of individuals, expanded health offices and better living standards explosively affected the population. 

  • A quick decrease in death rate, MMR (maternal mortality rate) and IMR (infant mortality rate) alongside increment in the population of reproductive age is the fundamental explanation behind population explosion. 
  • Steps to beat population explosion.
  1.     Utilizing different contraceptive measures. 
  2.   Instructing individuals about the disadvantages of an enormous family. 
  3.   Expanding the eligible marriage age of female and male 
  4.   Giving rewards to people having 1or 2 kids. 
  •  Contraceptive methods are utilized to forestall the undesirable pregnancy and adjust the menstrual cycle. 
  • A perfect contraceptive should be- 
  1. Easy to understand
  2. Effectively accessible 
  3. Effective
  4. Reversible 
  5. No reactions 
  6. No way meddles with sexual desire and sexual act. 

Contraceptives could be classified into the following:

a) Traditional or natural ways.

b) Barrier techniques 

c) IUDs 

d) Oral contraceptives

e) Injectable 

f) Implants 

g) Surgical methods. 

Regular strategies work on declining the odds of ovum and sperm meeting. It incorporates:

a) Periodic abstinence the couples dodge sex from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle as odds of fertilization are extremely high during this period, it is known as the fertile period. 

b) Withdrawal or intercourse interruptus – male accomplice pulls back penis from vagina not long before discharge to maintain a strategic distance from insemination. 

c) Lactational Amenorrhea – nonappearance of the monthly cycle after parturition and because of serious milk feeding and no ovulation in this period, odds of fertilization is nil. 

In Barrier strategies, ovum and sperms are kept from physical gathering with the assistance of boundary. This incorporates 

a) Condoms–utilized by a male, obstructions made of elastic or latex sheets used to cover the penis or vagina and cervix of females. It likewise keeps from STDs. 

Condoms For Males Condom for male 

condoms for female

Condom for female 

b) Diaphragms, cervical cap and vaults are boundaries made of elastic that is embedded into the female reproductive part during sex. 

  • Spermicidal creams, jellies and foams are typically utilized along with these boundaries to build their preventative efficiency. 
  • Merits of barrier techniques: 

  1. They are expendable. 
  2. Can be self inserted. 
  3. They are reusable. 
  4. Forestalls conception by blocking sperm entry through the cervix. 
  • Intrauterine Devices–embedded by doctor or nurse into the female uterus through the vagina. IUCDs might be non-cured IUDs (e.g., Lippes loop), copper discharging IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375) and the hormone discharging IUDs (Progestasert, LNG-20) 
  • IUCDs increment the phagocytosis of sperm in uterus and copper diminish the motility and fertility of sperms. The hormone discharging IUDs make the uterus unacceptable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperms. It is perfect for females who need to defer pregnancy and space between two kids. 
  • Oral Pills are progesterone or progesterone-estrogen mix utilized by females in the type of tablets. They repress ovulation and implantation and change the nature of cervical mucus to forestall/hinder sperms. Administration of progesterone or progesterone-estrogen mix inside 72 hours of intercourse is seen as exceptionally compelling as emergency contraceptive measures. 
  • Surgical technique – This technique is additionally called sterilization. 
  • It is utilized as a terminal strategy for contraception in male and female to forestall any more pregnancy.

Vasectomy: Reproductive Health


Tubectomy : Reproductive Health


Vasectomy is the surgical technique in male; a little piece of the vas deferens is tied up or removed through a little cut on the scrotum to forestall the release of sperms. 

Tubectomy is the surgical method in females in which a little piece of the fallopian tube is removed precisely. 

These procedures are exceptionally powerful yet their reversibility is poor 

Side effects of contraceptive technique: 

  •  It is significant that the determination of contraceptive technique should be taken after consulting a doctor. 
  • They have impacts like nausea, pain in the abdomen, bleeding, unpredictable menstrual draining or even breast cancer 

Clinical Termination of Pregnancy 

The planned end of a pregnancy before full term is called MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) or abortion. It is significant in the diminishing population by aborting undesirable pregnancy. 

  • In India, MTP was sanctioned in 1971 with some limitation to forestall its abuse, for example, unlawful abortion of female foeticides. 
  • MTP is utilized to 
  • Get rides of undesirable pregnancy because of unprotected intercourse or disappointment of contraceptives utilized during copulation or rapes. 
  • when pregnancy continuation could be hurtful or even fetal to mother or foetus. 
  • MTPs are viewed as moderately safe during the first trimester or as long as 12 weeks of pregnancy. Second-trimester MTPs are substantially more hazardous. 

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs) 

Ailments which are transmitted through sex are by are called sexually transmitted illness or venereal disease (VD) or reproductive tract infection (RTI). 

  • Some STDs are Gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiosis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-Ba and AIDS. 
  • Hepatitis-B and HIV are likewise transmitted by sharing of infusion needles, surgical instruments with infected individuals, transfusion of blood, or from infected mother to foetus. 
  • But genital herpes, HIV and hepatitis-B can be totally cured whenever detected before and treated appropriately. 
  • Early detection and appropriate treatment of STDs are significant or else it could lead to some complications later, which incorporate pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), premature births, despite everything stillbirths, abortions, infertility, ectopic pregnancies or even cancer of the reproductive parts. 

 STDs can be forestalled by- 

a) Avoid sex with obscure accomplices/different accomplices. 

b) Always use condoms during intercourse. 

c) Go to a doctor if there is an occurrence of uncertainty for early detection and get the proper examination done. 


The couples who can’t reproduce babies despite unprotected sex are called infertile. The purposes behind this could be many-physical, congenital, drugs, illness, Immunological or even Psychological. 

Infertile couples can use assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which incorporates :

In vitro fertilization (IVF)- fertilization outside the body followed by transfer of the embryo, which is also called test tube baby program. The ovum from woman and sperm from man are gathered and fertilized in laboratory conditions. The zygote or embryo(8 blastomeres) could be moved into a fallopian tube called ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian tube) and embryo usually more than 8 blastomeres IUT (intrauterine exchange)  into the uterus to finish the further development. 

GIFT (gamete intrafallopian move)

Move of gametes gathered from a benefactor into a fallopian container of another female who doesn’t deliver ovum. 

Intracytoplasmic sperm infusion (ICSI)- specific methodology to shape an embryo in a laboratory in which sperm is infused into the ovum. 

Artificial insemination: infertility cases in which male accomplices can’t create healthy sperms are treated by this procedure in which semen gathered from the benefactor is brought into the vagina or the uterus, IUI ( intrauterine insemination) of the female. 

Every one of these methods requires amazingly high accuracy dealing with specific doctors and costly instruments. Thus, their advantages are restricted to specific nations and individuals. 

Religious, emotional and social factors additionally forestall the use of these techniques. 


Question: What is the difference between ICSI and IVF technology? 

Arrangement: There are numerous contrasts between Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection and In vitro fertilization. But the main distinction is in the insemination. ICSI requires a single sperm cell to prepare with oocyte while the IVF requires right around 50 to 100 thousand for fertilization with the oocyte. The purpose behind the difference is that IVF experiences an acrosome reaction and it includes a large number of sperm cells. Fertilization results in the formation of proembryo which is then placed in the uterus for further development.

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