Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Class 11 Biology NCERT Chapter 13

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 – Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

In the previous chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition, you learnt about that it centers around mineral sustenance in plants. In this chapter: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants, you will learn the photosynthesis in higher plants notes to investigate the procedure of photosynthesis in higher plants.

Sub-topics covered under Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

The nuts and bolts of photosynthesis are known to all. Photosynthesis in higher plants includes extra procedures, however in a general sense it continues as before. It is a physicochemical procedure that utilizes daylight for the combination of natural mixes. In this procedure, oxygen is delivered in the air. 

Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplast, found in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. There are 4 colors associated with photosynthesis:  

  • Chlorophyll a
  • Chlorophyll b
  • Xanthophylls
  • Carotenoids

 Quick revision notes


Plants who can make their own food are known as autotrophs. In any case, there are hardly any plants who can’t and are called as heterotrophs. The procedure by which plants make their own food is called as photosynthesis. The photosynthesis procedure happens to a great extent in the leaves of the plant which are known as the ‘kitchen of the plant’. Now and again, even the stems can possibly perform photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis – The Process of Making Food in Plants

As referenced before, the procedure of photosynthesis happens in the leaf of a plant. The leaf is anatomically partitioned into numerous layers. Photosynthesis happens in the mesophyll layer of the leaf, the center layer, otherwise called palisade parenchyma. These mesophyll cells are bountiful in exceptional cell organelles called as chloroplasts which are answerable for photosynthesis. 

Leaves likewise contain little openings on their undersurface known as ‘stomata’ which are liable for vaporous trade and are the wellspring of CO2 that enters the leaf.

The Chloroplast

The Chloroplast

These are exceptional organelles that inside which photosynthesis process happens. Chloroplasts are twofold membraned organelles. The Chloroplast comprises of circle formed thylakoids that are stacked together. Stacked thylakoids are known as a ‘grana’. It is in the film of the thylakoid that shade chlorophyll is available.

Photosynthesis Process

Photosynthesis in plants

Photosynthesis process can be divided into two stages:

Light Reaction

This response is a light-needy response and it is expected to create vitality atoms like ATP and NADPH. This response happens in the thylakoid layer of the chloroplast where the daylight triggers of the response of chlorophyll color. 

The energized chlorophyll delivers an electron that is acknowledged by the H2 of water after its parting. The responses that happen are redox responses and at last lead to the creation of vitality atoms ATP and NADPH which are then required for the ensuing orchestrating responses that happen in obscurity response. 

Dull Reaction 

This response doesn’t truly happen in obscurity yet is named so on the grounds that it is autonomous of light. This response can happen both in the nearness and nonappearance of light. Because of the researchers who attempted to find this cycle, this response is additionally called as the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. 

This response happens in the stroma of the chloroplast. This response utilizes the vitality particles produced in the light period of photosynthesis and changes over CO2 into glucose. The photosynthesis procedure can be summed up by the accompanying condition:

6CO2+ 6H2O→C6H12O6+ 6O2 (in the presence of sunlight)

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Process

There are few factors that promote or inhibit photosynthesis depending on their concentration :

  • Light
  • Temperature
  • CO2
  • Oxygen

Purpose of Photosynthesis

For the plants, photosynthesis produces glucose to have the option to create vitality to perform different capacities, for example, breath, transport of water and minerals all through the plant. Plants need vitality to likewise perform other organic and biochemical procedures to empower it to duplicate. For different life forms, plants fill in as food.


Q: Where does the light response happen?

  1. Stroma of the Chloroplast
  2. Thylakoid membrane
  3. Grana
  4. Both b and c

Sol. (d) Chlorophyll is available in the thylakoid layer of the chloroplasts. Stacked thylakoids are known as grana. Along these lines, the two alternatives b and c are right.

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