Minerals and Energy Resources: Class 10 Geography NCERT Chapter 5

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 –  Minerals and Energy Resources

In the last chapter 4, you learned about agriculture. In this chapter, you will learn about minerals, their classification, how to conserve minerals, various types of vitality resources, and how we can conserve these vitality resources.

(Minerals and Energy Resources: Class 10)

You already know that the earth’s crust is comprised of various minerals installed in the rocks. Various metals are removed from these minerals after refinement. In all advancement stages, individuals use minerals for their job, embellishment, festivities, religious and stately rites. 

What is a Mineral? 

The mineral is characterized as a “homogenous, normally occurring substance with a perceptible inward structure.” Minerals are found in different forms in nature, running from the hardest precious stone to the softest powder. Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals. 

Fast revision notes 

Various metals are extricated from these minerals after appropriate refinement. 

Minerals are an indispensable piece of our lives. 

The railway lines and the tarmac(paving) or a major ship are tarmacs of the roads. 

Indeed, even the food that we eat contains minerals. 

Minerals are found in different forms in nature, running from the hardest jewel to the softest powder. 

Rock is a combination of homogeneous substances called minerals. 

More than 2000 minerals have been recognized. Just a couple are plentifully found in most of the rocks. 

Geologists use these properties to classify minerals. 

Method of Occurrence Of Minerals: 

Minerals are usually found in “ores.” The term metal is used to describe an aggregation of any minerals blended in with different elements. 

This also tells the cost of understanding the fundamental types of formations where the primary kinds of formations happen. 

(I) In igneous and transformative rocks, minerals may happen in the cracks crevices faults or join the smaller occurrences are called Veins, and the more prominent is called Lodes. 

(ii) In sedimentary rocks, various minerals happen in beds or layers. They have been shaped as a result of deposition aggregation and fixation in flat strata. 

(iii) Another arrangement method involves the decomposition of surface rocks and the evacuation of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. 

(iv) Certain minerals may happen as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. 

(v) The sea waters contain vast minerals of financial signification Common salt, Magnesium, and water. The sea beds also are rich manganese nodules. 

Ferrous Minerals: 

Ferrous minerals represent around three-fourths of the all-out estimation of the creation of metallic minerals. 

Iron Ore: 

Iron metal is the basic minerals and the foundation of the industrial turn of events. 

The finest iron metal with a high substance of iron up to 70 percent. 

In the bordering Singbhum districts of Jharkhand, haematite iron mineral is mined in Noamundi and GUA. 

Durg – Bastar – Chandrapur belt falls in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Extremely high-grade hematites are found in the Bastar district of Chattisgarh. 

The Kudremukh mines situated on the western ghats of Karnataka deposits are known to be one of the world’s largest. 

Maharashtra – Goa belt includes the state of gos and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. 

The iron mineral is traded through the Marmagoa port. 


Manganese is chiefly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferromanganese combination. Almost 10 kg of manganese is required to produce blanching powder and paint. 

Non – Ferrous Minerals: 

India’s reserves and the creation of non – ferrous minerals are not exceptionally satisfactory. 


India fundamentally lacks in the reserve and creation of copper. Being moldable, pliable, and a decent channel, copper, is, for the most part, used in electrical cables, electrons, and chemical industries. 


Several ores contain aluminum. It is shaped bauxite earth-like substance that alumina and later aluminum is gotten. 

Bauxite deposits are shaped by the decomposition of a wide assortment of rocks wealthy in aluminum silicates. 

India’s bauxite deposit is essentially found in the Amarkantak level. 

Orissa is the largest bauxite, creating a state in India with 34.97 percent of its complete creation in 2000 – 01. 

Non – Metallic Minerals: 

Mica is a mineral comprised of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into dainty sheets. 

Mica can be transparent, black, green, red yellow, or earthy colored. 

Mica is one of the essential minerals that is used in electric industries. 

Mica deposits can be found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau, Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the primary maker. 

In Rajasthan, the major mica creating territory is near the city called Ajmer. 

Rock Minerals: 

Limestone is found in association with composition of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. 

(Minerals and Energy Resources: Class 10)

Conservation Of Minerals: 

The strong reliance of industry and farming upon mineral deposits and the substances manufactured from them. 

The all-out volume of functional mineral deposits is an insignificant division. 

The rates of replenishment are interminably low in comparison. 

A coordinated exertion to be made to use mineral resources in an arranged and sustainable way. 

Vitality Resources: 

Vitality is required for all activities, and It is expected to cook to give light and heat to move. 

Vitality can be created from fuel minerals like coal, oil from fuel minerals like coal, oil, petroleum gas, uranium, and power. 

It consumes the most significant excrement, which could be used in horticulture. 

Conservation Sources Of Energy: 


The most plentifully accessible fossil fuel. It provides a substantial piece of the country’s vitality needs. 

Lignite is a second rate earthy colored coal that is soft with high moisture content. 

Anthracite is the highest quality of hard coal. 

A little more than 200 million years in age and tertiary deposits are just around 55 million years old. 


Oil or mineral oil is the following major vitality source in India after coal. 

Oil refineries go about as a “nodal industry” for synthetic material, prolific, and numerous chemical industries. 

The oil is kept from rising or sinking by mediating non – porous layer. 

Around 63 percent of India’s oil creation is from Mumbai High, 18 percent from the guide locates the three major seaward fields of western India. 

Petroleum gas: 

Flammable gas is a significant clean vitality resource found in association with or without oil. 

It is used as a source of vitality and an industrial crude material in the petrochemical industry. 

The fuel for the present century. 

Andaman and Nicobar are lands that are also significant areas having vast reserves of petroleum gas. 

The long Hazira – Bijapur Jagdishpur cross-nation gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the composting power and industrial complexes in western and northern India. 

The force and manure industries are the key users of gaseous petrol. 


Power has such a wide scope of use today and age that its per capita consumption is considered a list of advancements. 

Power is created principally in two ways by running water. 

Consuming fuels such a coal oil gas to drive turbines to create warm force. 

Hydropower is created by fast streaming water. 

Warm power is created by using coal, oil, and flammable gas. 

There are more than 310 warm force plants in India. 

Non – Conventional Sources of Energy: 

The developing consumption of vitality has resulted in the nation getting increasingly reliant on fossil fuel, such as coal oil and gas. 

There is a pressing need to use sustainable power sources like solar vitality, wind, tide, biomass, and vitality from waste material. 

These are called non – traditional vitality sources. 

These are called non – traditional vitality sources. 

Atomic or Atomic Energy: 

It is gotten by altering the structure of atoms. 

The type of heat and this is used to the created electric force. 

The Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for creating nuclear or atomic force. 

The Monazite sands of Kerala are also wealthy in Thorium. 

Solar Energy: 

India is a tropical nation. It has enormous possibilities for tapping vitality. 

Photovoltaic innovation converts sunlight straightforwardly into power. 

Like this will add to ecological conservation and a sufficient supply of compost in horticulture. 

Wind Power: 

India presently ranks as a “twist super force” the world. 

The largest breeze ranch cluster is situated in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai. 

Nagercoil and Jaisalmer are notable for the possible use of wind vitality in the nation. 


Shrubs, ranch waste, animal, and human waste deliver biogas for domestic consumption I country areas. 

The plant using steers excrement is known as a ‘Gobar gas plant’ in provincial India. 

It improves the loss of trees and fertilizer because of the consumption of fuelwood and cow compost cakes. 

Flowing Energy: 

Maritime tides can be used to produce power. Conduit dams are worked across keenness. 

The sea is employing a funnel that carries it through a force creating a turbine. 

A 900 MW flowing vitality power plant is set up here by the National Hydropower Corporation. 

Geo-Thermal Energy: 

Geothermal vitality refers to the heat and power created by heat from the inside of the earth. 

It is so hot that when it gets rise to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. 

This stem is used to drive turbines and create power. 

(Minerals and Energy Resources: Class 10)

Conservation of Energy Resources: 

Vitality is a basic necessity for the financial turn of events. 

The financial advancement plans executed since Independence necessarily required increasing amounts of vitality to stay operational. 

Advancement of vitality conservation and increased use of sustainable power sources are the twin planks.

(Minerals and Energy Resources: Class 10)

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