Major Domains Of The Earth:Class 6 Geography NCERT Chapter 5

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 – Major Domains of the Earth

In the previous chapter 4:Maps we have studied about the different directions and the usefulness of a map.In this chapter 5:Major domains of the earth,we will study about the different layers presents in our earth.

Quick revision notes

There are three primary segments of nature – Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. 

The strong part of the Earth on which we live is known as the Lithosphere. 

The vaporous layer that encompasses the Earth is the Atmosphere. 

The region secured by water is called Hydrosphere. 

The zone which contains all types of life is called Biosphere. 


  • It contains the stones of the world’s covering and the meager layers of soil. 
  • There are two primary divisions of the world’s surface. 
  • The huge landmasses are known as the mainlands. 
  • The gigantic water bodies are known as the sea bowls. 


  • There are seven significant mainlands. 
  • Most of the land mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere
  • Asia is the biggest mainland. 
  • The consolidated landmass of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia. 
  • Africa is the second biggest mainland. It is the main landmass through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. 
  • North America is the third biggest landmass of the world. 
  • South America and North America are connected by an exceptionally thin portion of land called the Isthmus of Panama. 
  • Australia is the littlest mainland. It is additionally called an island landmass. 
  • Antarctica is for all time secured with thick ice sheets. 
  • India has an examination station named as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri at Antarctica. . 


  • More than 71 % percent of the Earth is secured with water, in this way, the Earth is known as the blue planet. 
  • Over 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the seas. 



  • The four significant seas are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. 
  • The Pacific Ocean is the biggest sea. 
  • The Atlantic Ocean is the second biggest sea. 
  • The Indian Ocean is the main sea named after a nation, that is, India. 
  • The Arctic Ocean is situated inside the Arctic Circle. 


  • The climate shields us from the unsafe impacts of the sun’s beams. 
  • The climate reaches out up to a stature of around 1,600 kilometers. 
  • The air is separated into five layers—the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere. 
  • The air is made principally out of nitrogen and oxygen. 

Biosphere – The Domain of Life 

  • The biosphere is the thin zone of contact between the land, water and air. 
  • All the living life forms including people are connected to one another and to the biosphere for endurance
  • The life forms in the biosphere may extensively be separated into the plant realm and the animals of the world collectively. 
  • Increment in the measure of C02 prompts an expansion in worldwide temperature. This is named as a dangerous atmospheric deviation. 

The earth is the main planet where people discover three life supporting components— 

land, water and air. 

The outside of the earth is an intricate zone. Here three fundamental parts of nature—lithosphere, climate and hydrosphere meet, cover and communicate. 

The lithosphere alludes to the strong bit of the earth where we live. 

The environment alludes to the vaporous layers which encompassing the earth. 

The hydrosphere alludes to the water bodies that exist on the world’s surface. 

The biosphere is the tight zone where we discover land, water and air together. Life exists here. 

The world’s surface is partitioned into landmasses and sea bowls. 

Mainlands are enormous landmasses of the earth while sea bowls are immense water bodies. 

Mount Everest is the most noteworthy mountain top. Its stature is 8,848 meters over the ocean level. 

The best profundity of 11,022 meters is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. 

There are seven landmasses—Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. 

Asia is the biggest landmass while Australia is the littlest mainland. 

Antarctica is forever secured with thick ice sheets. Consequently, it isn’t appropriate for human settlement. 

Over 71% of the earth is secured with water and 29% is with land. 

Over 97% of the world’s water is found in the seas. Sea water is pungent. It is of no human use. A huge extent of the remainder of the water is as ice sheets and icy masses or under the ground. Just 0.03% of water is accessible as new water which is usable by people. 

There are four significant seas—the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean arranged by their size. 

The Indian Ocean is the main sea named after a nation, for example India. 

The air is separated into five layers. These layer beginning from earth’s surface 

are—the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere. 

The air is made out of a few gases—Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), different gases like carbon dioxide, argon and others contain 1%. 

Oxygen is fundamental for our life. We can not live without it. Nitrogen is fundamental for the development of living beings. Carbon dioxide ingests heat transmitted by the earth and along these lines it keeps the earth warm. It is likewise fundamental for plants. 

The biosphere is where life exists. From small microorganisms and microscopic organisms to colossal well evolved creatures are found in the biosphere. There is a nearby connection between every one of these life forms including people. 

The living beings in the biosphere are isolated into plant realm and the set of all animals. 

The three areas of the earth communicate with one another and influence one another. For instance outflow from ventures contaminate the air. 

Increment in the measure of CO2 prompts an expansion in worldwide temperatures which is known as a dangerous atmospheric deviation. 

Lithosphere: The strong part of the earth on which we live is named as the lithosphere. 

Climate: The vaporous layers that encompass the earth is known as the environment. 

Hydrosphere: The water bodies on the world’s surface is known as hydrosphere. 

Biosphere: It is the limited zone where land, water and air together are found. All types of life exists here. 

Mainlands: The huge landmasses are called mainlands. 

Sea bowls: The enormous water bodies are known as the sea bowls. 

Waterway: It is a limited section of water interfacing two enormous water bodies like oceans and seas. 

Isthmus: It is a thin piece of land joining two landmasses. 

Plant Kingdom: The piece of biosphere comprising of plants and trees. 

Collective of animals: The piece of biosphere comprising of a creature

An unnatural weather change: Increase in the measure of carbon dioxide prompts an expansion in the worldwide temperatures. This is known as an unnatural weather change.

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