Land, Soil, Water,and Natural Vegetation

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 –   Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

Quick revision notes

In Chapter 1 of Class 8 NCERT book: Resources  , you must have learnt about  how land, soil, water, natu vegetation and wildlife resources. In chapter 2:  you will learn about various forms of land, water, soil and other resources.


  • The land is a significant characteristic asset which covers just 30 percent of the world’s surface. 
  • Land gives the greater part of human needs. Its utilization relies upon physical factors, for example, geography, soil, atmosphere, mineral and accessibility of water and human variables. 
  • Because of the exorbitant utilization of land for rural and constructional exercises, the serious issue of land corruption, landslides, soil disintegration, and so forth emerges. 
  • To monitor the land, we should advance afforestation, check to overgraze and direct the utilization of synthetic pesticides and manures. 


  • Soil is the upper layer of the land. 
  • Soil arrangement relies upon the idea of parent rock, atmosphere, help highlights, vegetation, fauna, microorganisms and time. 
  • Deforestation, overgrazing, abuse of substance manures and pesticides, downpour wash, landslides and floods prompts soil debasement. 
  • Preservation of soil should be possible by mulching, shape hindrances, developing stone dam, patio cultivating, intercropping, form furrowing and making shelterbelts. 


  • Three-fourth of the earth surface is secured with water, out of which just 2.7 percent water is new water, yet just 1% of new water is accessible for human use. 
  • The over the top utilization of water prompts a lack in flexibly of new water either due to evaporating of water sources or because of water contamination. 
  • Release of untreated sewage, horticultural synthetic concoctions and mechanical effluents in water bodies causes water contamination. 
  • Water protection should be possible by afforestation, embracing powerful strategies for water system and advancing water reaping. 

Normal Vegetation and Wildlife

  • Normal vegetation and natural life exist just in the biosphere and they are interrelated and associated on one another for their endurance. This framework is called an environment. 
  • Common vegetation and natural life both are significant assets. They are valuable for us, however they additionally help in keeping up balance in nature. 
  • Significant vegetations of the environments are timberlands, grasslands, cleans and Tundra. 
  • Because of deforestation, soil disintegration, constructional exercises, woods fires, wave Tundra, landslides and poaching, numerous types of vegetation and untamed life have become terminated and numerous others are very nearly eradication. 
  • We can monitor normal vegetation and untamed life by making public parks, natural life havens and biosphere holds. 

The nature of land, soil, water, common vegetation, creatures, and the utilization of innovation are significant variables in controlling the norm and lifestyle individuals lead at a specific spot. 

The land covers pretty much 30% of the outside of the earth. It isn’t reasonable for living all over, on account of a great deal of extra conditions that influence life. Portions of land not appropriate professionally are supposed to be inhabitable while the ones where individuals live are supposed to be livable. 

A few components influencing the livability of a spot are geography, range from ocean level, atmosphere, the richness of the dirt, vegetation, and so on. Individuals can’t live in thick timberlands or in deserts. They can’t live on high slants in precipitous territories, or in low-lying regions where there is the chance of floods and waterlogging. Fields and waterway valleys are where farming is fit, so the majority of the total populace lives in such territories, and these regions are intensely populated. 

The reason and manner by which land is utilized is called land use. Land use might be for horticulture, ranger service, mining, building houses, streets, setting up of ventures, or different purposes. 

Variables deciding the land use incorporate physical components like geology, accessibility of water, atmosphere, minerals soil, and so forth, or human elements like demography (populace design), innovation and instruction. 

Land generally has possession. It might be private land or network land. Private land is possessed by an individual or gathering of people, similar to a house is private land. Network land is intended for use by anybody in the general public, similar to land for assortment of feed, organic products, and so on. Network lands are likewise called normal property assets. 

Plants furnish us with various significant items, asylum to creatures, free oxygen which upholds life, ensures soil and give us a lot of our food. 

Creatures, winged animals and bugs (natural life) are likewise useful from various perspectives. Creepy crawlies like honey bees give us nectar and a winged animal like a vulture purifies nature by benefiting from dead domesticated animals. 

Vegetation relies upon temperature and dampness of a locale. Backwoods, grasslands, scours and tundra are significant vegetation types over the world. 

Weighty precipitation upholds enormous trees. Low dampness implies less thick woods and littler trees. In deserts, we have prickly bushes and scours. 

Woods are delegated evergreen and deciduous. The main sort never shed their leaves, yet the subsequent kind shed their leaves at a specific season. Both these sorts are additionally arranged into calm and tropical dependent on their area. 

There are gigantic worries about the preservation of these significant assets. We should add to this. Regular parks, untamed life havens and biosphere saves are approaches to secure vegetation and natural life. 

Preservation of plants and creatures is an ethical obligation of each person. 

Stream Learning:



The outside of the earth which is strong and covers about 30% of the all out surface of the earth is called land. 

Land Use:

The manner by which a specific area of land is being utilized is called land use. . 

Private Land:

A piece of land claimed by a specific individual or gathering of people is called private land. 

Network Land:

A piece of land not possessed by anybody yet implied for use by a huge gathering of individuals living in a general public, is called network land. 


The activity of chopping down trees is called deforestation. 


The activity of planting trees is called afforestation. 


The slim layer of grainy substance covering the outside of the earth is called soil. 


Weathering alludes to the separating and rot of uncovered rocks. This separating and rot is brought about by temperature variances, ice activity, plants, creatures and even human movement. 

Parent Rock:

The first stone from which soil has been shaped is called its parent rock. 


Mulching is the way toward making the exposed progress between plants with a layer of natural issue like straw. 

Porch Farming:

Terrace cultivating is the technique for cultivating wherein expansive level advances or patios are made on the precarious slants with the goal that level surfaces are accessible to develop crops. 


In intercropping, various yields are developed in substitute lines and are planted at various occasions to shield the dirt from being washed away by downpour. 

Shape Plowing:

Plowing corresponding to the shapes of a slope incline to frame a characteristic boundary for water to stream down a slant is called form furrowing. 

Sanctuary Belts:

Rows of trees that are planted in specific zones to check wind development are called shelterbelts. 

New Water:

Water fit for human utilization is called new water. 

Water Cycle:

The normal cycle of the consistent movement of water through vanishing, buildup and precipitation is known as the water cycle. 

Downpour Water Harvesting:

The way toward monitoring water where water is gathered with the goal that it can happen to use in the midst of water shortage is called water collecting. 


The tight zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate are known as the biosphere. 


The supporting and associated life-framework that exists in the biosphere is called a biological system. 

Characteristic Vegetation:

Plants and trees comprise common vegetation. 

Natural life:

The animals of the world collectively, which comprises of creatures, fowls, amphibian animals and bugs, is known as an untamed life. 


A feathered creature or creature which benefits from dead domesticated animals is known as a scrounger. 


The sort of vegetation found in freezing districts like the Arctic is called Tundra vegetation. 

Evergreen Forests:

The timberlands which never shed their leaves are called evergreen backwoods. 

Deciduous Forests:

The timberlands which shed their leaves once at a specific time o.f the year are called deciduous backwoods. 


The social program of planting trees, composed at network level is called vanamahotsava. 

Public Parks:

A public park is a characteristic zone expected to be utilized to ensure the environmental honesty of at least one biological systems for the present and people in the future. 

Natural life Sanctuaries:

An untamed life haven is like a public park, yet it should ensure a specific creature, at times, or untamed life by and large, in different cases. 

Biosphere Reserves:

These are a progression of secured zones connected through a worldwide system, planned to exhibit the connection among protection and improvement.

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