Garbage In, Garbage Out: Class 6 Science NCERT Chapter 16

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 6 Science Chapter 16 – Garbage In Garbage Out

Chapter 16 of Class 6: Garbage In Garbage Out deals with all the garbage in households and waste products from other places on a daily basis and where they go. While in the previous chapter: Air around us, you must have learned about air and its composition, in this chapter, you will learn about different sources of wastes and many other terms related to the same.

Quick revision notes

Dumping of garbage

We clear houses, shops, and different spots gather the earth and other waste materials in the polythene and toss it either in a channel or at the comer of the road. 

The piles of trash material spread dirtiness as well as give sanctuary to houseflies, mosquitoes, microorganisms, microscopic organisms, and other sickness conveying living creatures. 

The hospital includes gauzes, cotton motivation, injection bottles, tablet coverings, cut out plaster, needles, glucose bottles, needles, papers, stop, instruments, tubes, peelings, and seeds. 

For most parts, wastes are utilized for filling the low lying zones. These things pollute the soil and are answerable for a few lethal infections. 

Numerous individuals sort out needles, cylinders, needles, and other reusable instruments, wash them, and reuse them which become the reason for some maladies

The filling materials diffuse in the soil and pollute the dirt. 


The container or space where the waste material is collected is called a dustbin. 

Green dustbins

Generally, we make use of green dustbin for gathering biodegradable waste. 

Blue dustbins

The non-biodegradable was blue dustbins: The non-biodegradable wastes which don’t break down or biodegradable normally are kept in the blue dustbin. 

Biodegradable waste

The waste which is disintegrated by microorganisms is called biodegradable waste. 

Non-biodegradable waste

The waste which isn’t deteriorated by smaller scale life forms is called non-biodegradable waste. 

The consumable wastage which is disposed of by individuals in the – polythene packs and eaten up by cow, pig, hound, and so forth., are not processed in their nutritious channel because of which the cows become patients. 

Polythene and plastics are exceptionally valuable in our lives yet are non-biodegradable. 

Superfluous utilization of plastic and polythene ought to be checked. 

We should attempt to utilize paper and jute bags however much as could be expected. 


We should utilize 3’R’ for checking the expansion of waste issues. The primary ‘R’ signifies ‘Decrease’. The significance of the second ‘R’ is ‘Reuse’ and the importance of the third ‘R’ is ‘Reusing’. We should utilize things to the most extreme which are biodegradable. 

Waste material

Every individual makes clothes and tosses each one of those things which he has utilized once and doesn’t utilize it once more. These things are usually called waste materials. 


Waste material, defecation of creatures, kitchen waste, garden waste, and so forth., are gathered in dustbins from where it is tossed out into the low lying regions for filling a reason. 


The excrement made up of kitchen wastes and nursery wastes are called fertilizer compost. It builds the ripeness of the dirt. 


The method of getting ready fertilizer with the assistance of redworms is called vermicomposting (Fig.). 


All the utilized or unusable substances which can’t be reused in a similar structure is called trash. 


 It is a procedure wherein a material which has been utilized once is reused to create something to reuse. 

Segregation Of Wastes

Trash or waste might be an as organic product or vegetable strips, disposed of items, wrapping materials, wasted food as family unit trash, or disposed of synthetic substances and manures washed into waterways, local sewage, and so forth. These wastes can be isolated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable. wastes that decay (experience debasement) by the activity of decomposers (minuscule creatures found in the dirt) are called biodegradable wastes. Dead plants and creatures and their items (e.g., foods grown from the ground strips, paper, and leaves) rot effectively These wastes blend in with the dirt and produce compost. wastes that don’t decay by the activity of decomposers are called non-biodegradable wastes. For instance, glass, plastic, and metals. A large number of them can be reused to deliver new things.

Contingent upon the sort of wastes, two trash containers—one for biodegradable wastes and other for non-biodegradable wastes ought to be utilized. This will help in simple arranging and reusing of wastes to make valuable items. 

Segregation Of garbage

Best out of waste

The Rock Garden in Chandigarh is an amazing case of how strong wastes can be used. Each thing in this nursery is produced using waste materials like tires, plastic jugs, eggshells, and cylinder lights. This creative thought of using strong waste has made the Rock Garden a well-known vacation destination.

Management Of Biodegradable Wastes

A portion of the approaches to oversee biodegradable wastes are as per the following:


Since biodegradable or natural wastes like vegetable strips, waste food, leaves, dead blossoms, and eggshells can be reused, they are changed over into fertilizer by covering them in manure pits. Reusing of natural wastes like vegetable strips, waste food, leaves, and so forth., by covering them in manure pits is called treating the soil. Treating the soil is a basic and practically easy procedure of reusing. The biodegradable wastes are corrupted by the activity of little living beings like microbes and parasites. There is additionally an alternate sort of fertilizing the soil where a sort of nightcrawler called red worms (or red wrigglers) follow up on wastes and corrupt them.

This type of composting with the help of a type of earthworm called red worms is called vermicomposting (Fig. 17.1). Red worms break down the organic matter into nutrient-rich manure which increases soil fertility.

Vermicompost :

It is easily made within 3-4 weeks and it appears as loose soil-like material. Any animal product or oily substance must not be put in the vermicompost as it could lead to the growth of disease-causing organisms.

Vermicompost: Garbage In, Garbage Out


Enormous areas utilized for waste removal are called landfills. The landfill is another technique to deal with a colossal sum, of biodegradable waste. In a landfill, garbage is covered so as to not harm the soil (Fig. 17.2). Trash covered inside landfills remains here for quite a while as it breaks down gradually. After a landfill is full, it very well may be changed over into a recreation centre. For instance, Indraprastha Park in New Delhi is based on a landfill site. 

Landfills: Garbage In, Garbage Out

Management Of Non-Biodegradable Wastes

As non-biodegradable wastes like plastic sacks, glass bottles, and so forth., can’t be separated by decomposers, their removal represents a major issue. 

Non-biodegradable wastes can be overseen by rehearsing the idea of 3 Rs—Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. 

Here are a few hints for diminishing wastes: 

Utilize a wellspring pen instead of a ballpoint pen, 

Utilize old papers for bundling, and 

Use material napkins instead of dispensable ones.


We can reuse certain things for more than one reason. On the off chance that we reuse them for different purposes, we can help in decreasing waste. 

Here is a portion of the tips for reusing things: 

  • Little containers and jugs can be cleaned to keep some other kitchen stuff.
  • One ought to incline toward glass containers to metal can when purchasing juice or soda pop. The jugs can be topped off. 
  • Old garments can be made into other usable things like pad spread, hanky, and so on. 
  • Old cell phones can be given to companions or family. 

Reuse: Garbage In, Garbage Out

Recycling of Plastics

Container, bottle, toy, shoe, sack, pen, and brush are a couple of things made of plastic. The utilization of plastics has become a significant concern these days since they are non-biodegradable and discharge destructive gases after warming or copying. They can likewise pollute staples. Whenever eaten by creatures, plastics can stifle and execute them. Along these lines, one ought to diminish and reuse plastic things beyond what many would consider possible. At the point when plastic things are to be disposed of, they ought to be reused to make new things. 

  • A portion of the approaches to diminish, reuse, and reuse plastics are as per the following: 
  • Paper, cotton, and jute sack ought to be favoured over plastic packs (Fig. 17.4). 
  • Some dispensable plastic compartments and containers can be utilized to develop plants (Fig. 17.5). 
  • Void jugs can be topped off for capacity of water or some other fluid stuff. Consider the occasions you purchase a jug of water when you are out. Rather, you can fill the pre-owned jug and convey it at whatever point you are out. 
  • Zip foils can be reused subsequently to cleaning completely each time in the wake of putting away groceries. 

Recycling of paper:

Paper is produced using trees and trees are basic for our endurance on Earth. Along these lines, regardless of whether the paper is biodegradable, the consumption of trees at a quick pace is a major concern. In this way, to spare trees we should utilize paper cautiously. A portion of the approaches to spare paper are: 

We ought to consistently compose on the two sides of paper sheets. 

Unused pages from old scratchpad can be removed and made into another note pad for accomplishing harsh work and different random work. 

We can likewise reuse envelopes and spreads by utilizing stickers to compose new locations. 

We can likewise make new paper from old papers. 

At this point, we know how unsafe trash gathering can be. In any case, by following the 3Rs idea, we can deal with the trash created in our environmental factors so it is valuable to nature. 

Biodegradable wastes:

Wastes that decay by the activity of decomposers is called biodegradable wastes. 

Non-biodegradable wastes:

Wastes that don’t decay by the activity of decomposers are called non-biodegradable wastes. 

Treating the soil:

Recycling of natural wastes like vegetable strips, waste food, leaves, and so forth., by covering them in fertilizer pits is called treating the soil. 


Composting with the assistance of a sort of nightcrawler, called red worms, is called vermicomposting


Large territories utilized for waste removal are called landfills. 


The procedure by which waste materials are utilized to make new items is called reusing. 

There are for the most part two kinds of wastes dependent on their capacity to decay over some undefined time frame: biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes. 

Dead plants and creatures and their items rot while objects like plastic and glass don’t. 

Vermicomposting and landfills are two different ways of overseeing strong wastes. 

By rehearsing the idea of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), we can deal with our wastes well.

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