Drainage:Class 9 Geography NCERT Chapter 3

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 9 Geography Chapter 3 –  Drainage

In the previous Chapter 2:Physical features of india we will learned about some features of our geographic location.In this Chapter 3:Drainage we will study about different water bodies and some major rivers flows in our country.

Quick revision notes

In the past 3 years’ assessments, noteworthy significance has been given to the accompanying subjects from this section. 

  • Drainage Patterns 
  • Different River Basin System 
  • Contamination of Rivers. 

Seepage’ is a term connoting the waterway arrangement of a zone. 

A seepage bowl or waterway bowl is a zone w’hich is depleted by a solitary stream framework. 

An upland that isolates two waste frameworks that are close to one another is known as a water partition. 

Based on inception, there are two waterway frameworks of India — The Himalayan rivers and the Peninsular rivers. 

Himalayan rivers are rainfed and snowfed, so they have w?ater in them consistently, i.e., they are lasting and consequently traversable. 

Himalayan rivers make wanders, oxbow lakes and other depositional highlights on their course. 

Peninsular rivers are occasional; generally relying upon precipitation and along these lines non-safe. 

A large portion of the rivers of peninsular India start in the Western Ghats and stream’ towards the Bay of Bengal

The Himalayan Rivers 

A waterway alongside its feeders might be known as a stream framework. 

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra. 

The Indus River System 

Ascending close to Lake Mansarovar in Tibet, the Indus enters India in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. 

Rivers Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join Indus close Mithankot, Pakistan and stream southwards to fall into the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. 

With a complete length of 2,900 km, the Indus is perhaps the longest stream of the world. 

The Ganga River System 


The headwaters of the Ganga are called ‘Bhagirathi’. 

Bhagirathi is taken care of by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devprayag. 

Ganga meets the feeders from the Himalayas, for example, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and the Yamuna. 

A significant stream Yamuna, emerging from Yamunotri Glader in the Himalayas, joins Ganga at Allahabad. 

Different feeders — Chambal, Betwa and Son — originate from Peninsular uplands to join Ganga. 

Ganga is joined by the Brahmaputra and courses through Bangladesh to arrive at the Bay of Bengal. 

The delta shaped when the Ganga and the Brahmaputra stream into the Bay of Bengal is known as the Sunderban Delta. 

The length of the Ganga is more than 2,500 km and it grows enormous wanders. 

The Brahmaputra River System 

Starting in Tibet, near the wellsprings of Indus and Satluj, Brahmaputra enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and streams to Assam, joined by numerous feeders. 

The feeders that join the Brahmaputra are Dibang, Lohit, and Kenula. 

The Brahmaputra has an interlaced direct in its whole length in Assam to frame numerous riverine islands. 

In contrast to other north Indian rivers, the Brahmaputra is set apart by gigantic stores of residue on its bed, making the riverbed rise. 

The Peninsular Rivers 

The significant rivers of the landmass—Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri—stream eastwards to deplete into the Bay of Bengal. 

The Thai and Narmada are the main rivers which stream west to make estuaries and channel into the Arabian Sea. 

The waste bowls of the peninsular rivers are similarly little in size. 

The Godavari Basin 

The Godavari starts in Nasik region of Maharashtra. It is the biggest peninsular waterway. 

Its huge bowl covers most pieces of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. 

The feeders which join the Godavari incorporate Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga and Penganga. 

Due to its length and the territory, it covers, the Godavari is otherwise called the Dakshin Ganga. 

The Godavari channels into the Bay of Bengal. 

The Mahanadi Basin 

The Mahanadi, a 860 km long stream, ascends in Chhattisgarh to course through Orissa to arrive at the Bay of Bengal. 

Head feeders of Mahanadi stream are Sheonath, Jonk, Hasdeo, Mand, lb, Ong and Tel. 

Mahanadi stream bowl is shared by Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. 

Is one of the significant east streaming peninsular rivers depleting into Bay of Bengal. 

The Krishna Basin 

The 1,400 km long Krishna waterway ascends from a spring in the Mahadev run close Mahabaleshwar and falls into the Bay of Bengal. 

The feeders of Krishna incorporate Bhima, Musi, Ghatprabha, Koyana and Tungabhadra. The Krishna bowl is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

The Narmada Basin 

Ascending in the Amarkantak Plateau of Maikala Range, Narmada streams to make a canyon in marble rocks of Madhya Pradesh. 

Narmada streams towards the west in a crack valley shaped because of blaming. • 

Narmada waterway has 41 feeders. The significant ones are: Barna, Ganjal, Chhota Tawa, Hiran, Janatara, Kolar, Orsang, Sher. 

The Tapi Basin 

Starting in Betul, Madhya Pradesh, the Tapi moves through a bowl that covers Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. 

The principle west streaming rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharatpuzha and Periyar. 

The whole Tapi bowl can be partitioned into three sub-bowls: upper, center and lower and into two very much characterized physical areas, viz, the bumpy locales and the fields or Tapi Basin. 

The Kaveri Basin 

Starting in the Brahmagiri scope of the Western Ghats, the Kaveri arrives at the Bay of Bengal at Kaveripatnam, imparting its bowl to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry or Pondicherry. 

The primary soil types found in the bowl are red and yellow soils. 

Job of Rivers in the Economy 

Rivers are a characteristic wellspring of water. It frames the principle spine for farming. 

Settlements on the stream banks have formed into urban communities. 

Rivers are utilized for water system, route, hydropower age, all indispensable for India, and agrarian economy. 

River Pollution 

Nature of stream water is influenced by the developing household, metropolitan, iftdustrial and agrarian interest. 

A hefty heap of untreated sewage and mechanical effluents are purged into the waterway influencing the stream’s self-purifying property. 

Worry over rising contamination in our rivers prompted the starting of different activity intends to clean the rivers like Narmada Bachao Movement.

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