Components Of Food: Class 6 Science NCERT Chapter 2

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 6 Science Chapter 2 – Components of Food 

In chapter 1 of NCERT class 6 science: Food: Where Does It Come From?, You learnt about the different animal and plant sources of food for humans and categorization of animals on basis of the type of food they eat. In this chapter: components of food, you will study what are the constituents of food and their significance in painting hood health. You will also get to know diseases caused due to lack of these constituents.

Quick revision notes 


It is the collection of consumable substances which provide energy to the living creatures and fix the old tissues and form the new tissues. 


The process of taking nutritious supplements required for the development and advancement of our body and to get energy is known as nutrition

There are three principle nutrients in our food. These are fats, proteins and sugars. In addition to this, our body requires water, salts (minerals), nutrients and fibres. 


It is the measure of food an individual eats at once. 


If an individual doesn’t get sufficient food, or if his/her eating routine doesn’t contain all the nutrients, the individual gets weak and dull. At the point when the body doesn’t get satisfactory nutrition, it experiences malnutrition. 

Different food parts are assembled in three classes: 

  • Food that provides energy: Carbohydrates and fats. 
  • The Food used for bodybuilding: Proteins. 
  • Food used for protection: Vitamins and minerals. 


  • Grains, for example, rice, wheat, sorghum, peas, beans, sago (sabudana), sugarcane, sugar beet, numerous fruits like banana, melons and mangoes and vegetables are acceptable sources of starches. 
  • Cellulose, starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose are the significant sugars found in the food we eat. 
  • Starch turns the solution of iodine into blue or black colour. Some sources of carbohydrates


  • We get fats either from plants or from animals. Groundnut oil, soybean oil and mustard oil are instances of fats which we get from plants. Fats like margarine and ghee are acquired from animals. Sources of fats: Class 6 components of food
  • Fats perform the function of fuel in our body yet they give more energy to do work than sugars. (in) Our body has certain advantages in fat deposits in little amount. It encourages body organs to develop and shields them from injury and prevents loss of warmth from the body surface. 
  • A lot of fat is unsafe for the body. Which prompts the condition called obesity
  • A greasy and transparent spot is left on a paper by the fatty substances. 


  • Milk, fish, meat, pork and eggs are the primary sources of animal proteins. Vegetable proteins can be acquired from the legumes that contain pulses and beans. 
  • Proteins are required for the development and fixing of our body. They help in building new tissues. likewise, they represent an intense, stringy nature of hair and nails and for the structure of muscles. They are a part of our blood and help in the working of our body. 

plant sources and animal sources of proteins

 In a short period of time, a large number of proteins are needed for building new tissues, for example, during the earliest stages, pregnancy or when the mother is sustaining a youngster. 


Vitamins are required by our body in little amounts. So, nutrients help in keeping our eyes, bones, teeth and gums fit. The food things which are rich in vitamins are known as protective food as they shield our body from infections and keep us solid. 

Sources of vitamins: class 6 science


Minerals are required by our body in limited quantities. In fact, each one is basic for the appropriate development of the body and to keep up-fit. A few sources of minerals are presented in fig. 

sources of iodine and phosphorous some sources of iron and calcium


  • Our body requires a huge amount (5-7 litre) of water in our day to day life. 
  • Water causes our body to perform numerous functions like processing, assimilating out waste in the form of urine and tainted blood. 
  • It additionally keeps our body cool by sweating. 
  • Also, Water helps in blood flow. 


  • Whole grains, flour and oats, potatoes, new food, raw and cooked vegetables give roughage to our food. 
  • It helps in the assimilation of food and avoid constipation. 

When you deep fry and roast the food it loses nutrition.

 Energy necessity:

The requirement of energy or taking of food relies upon the profession, age, sex and unique needs like pregnancy, infant stage, lactation, and so forth. 

Deficiency diseases:

Diseases that happen because of the absence of nutrition are called deficiency disease. Some of them are recorded in the accompanying Table.

Few Diseases or Disorders Caused by insufficiency of Vitamins and Minerals 

Disorders Caused by insufficiency of Vitamins and Minerals 

Balanced diet:

An eating routine containing all the nutrition and other components in the right proportion is known as a balanced diet. 


It is a malady caused because of the inadequacy of Vitamin Br The muscles of Beriberi patient get powerless. 


Carbohydrates are the nutrients that give us energy. The primary carbohydrates found in our food areas are starch and sugar. 


Energy is the ability to accomplish work. So, we need energy for our different exercises. 


Fats are like fuel in our body. They are gotten either from animals or from plants. 


Minerals are required by our body in little amounts. Every one of them is important for the proper development of the body and to keep us fit and healthy. 


The food’s component that is vital for the development and improvement of our body are called nutrients. 


Proteins are required for the development and fixing of tissues in our body. They help in building new tissues. 


Fibres of diet are roughage. They are chiefly given by plant items in our food. 


 Insufficiency of nutrient C causes scurvy. Draining gums is its principal indication. 


Starch is a sort of carbohydrate. 


Vitamins are likewise a significant nutrient. Insufficiency of any vitamin causes the deficiency disease. 

Food is necessary for all animals, including individuals (human beings). Our food contains various components. 

Have a look at the image of food things given below. Compose the names of components of food that you believe are available in the food things. Compose your answers in the spaces given. 

various components of food and their importance

Let us get familiar with the different segments of food and their significance. 1.Vitamins , 2.proteins, 3.proteins, 4.carbohydrates. 

Components Of Food: 

The food that we eat comprises of various parts of nutrition. Our body requires nutrition for the development and growth of our body to do work. There are six primary components present in food: sugars, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and roughage or dietary fibres. These supplements satisfy various necessities of the body. 


Carbohydrates give energy to your body, which props it up for the duration of the day. There are two significant sorts of carbohydrates in food: sugar and starch. 


Sugar is additionally called simple carbohydrate. Few sources of sugar are Fruits, honey and table sugar.

Sugars: components of food


Starch is additionally called complex sugar. Plants store energy as starch. Few sources of starch are rice, wheat, corn, potato, and bread. At the point when we eat plant items, containing sugar and starch, our digestive system break it into glucose. This glucose, which is the simplest type of sugar is then assimilated into the blood and gives us the power to do work. 

fats: component of food


Our body needs protiens for muscle¬building and fixing destroyed tissues. Protein is present in our muscles, organs, and even blood. In the event that we don’t eat proteins, our body won’t have the option to fix damaged cells or manufacture new ones. Proteins which we consume comes from both animals and plant sources (Fig.2.2). 

Some animal sources of protein are meat, fish, egg, and milk etc. Some plant sources of proteins are pulses, soybeans, grams, and nuts are. 


We require vitamins for the best possible working of our body. They help in keeping our eyes, bones, teeth, and gums fit. There are 13 vitamins, every one of which has a particular capacity. Vitamins are of two sorts: fat-soluble and water-soluble. 

Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble nutrients. Fat tissues of our body store the vitamins and our body uses it in need. 

Also, Our body makes nutrient D within the sight of daylight. 

Water-solvable vitamins:

Vitamins Bl, B2, B3, B6, B12, and folic acid (together is B complex) and vitamin C are water-solvent nutrients. Since our body doesn’t store water-solvent nutrients, food things like citrus organic products, spinach, and other green vegetables, can provide these vitamins. Absence of nutrients in the body can cause deficiency sicknesses. 


As like vitamins, minerals also help our body to stay fit and powerful. Minerals perform significant capacities like the development of bones, teeth, and platelets and aides in keeping up the normal heartbeat. Minerals are of two kinds: macrominerals and trace minerals (Fig. 2.3). 

Our body requires Macrominerals {macro: huge) in bigger sums when contrasted with minor elements. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium are instances of macrominerals. 

Our body requires minor elements in modest quantities. Iron, zinc, copper, and iodine are instances of minor elements. 

sources of minerals

Roughage or Dietary Fibers: 

The part of the plant food that doesn’t give any nutrition to our body however help in keeping up a  is called roughage or dietary fibres (Fig. 2.4). 

Roughage is of two kinds: soluble and insoluble. Soluble roughage can dissolve in water while insoluble roughage most certainly does not. Apple, strawberry, peach, and rice are some instances of food things rich in insoluble roughage that help in blood dissemination. Entire grain, carrot, cabbage, turnip, and cauliflower are instances of food things wealthy in insoluble roughage. Absence of insoluble roughage in the eating regimen makes the stool become hard and hard to pass. This condition is called constipation.

High sources of fibres

REEII ©  All rights reserved.