Biotechnology and its Applications: Class 12 Biology NCERT Chapter 12

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 – Biotechnology and its Applications

 In the previous chapter of NCERT class 12 biology: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes, you studied biotechnology and different processes associated with it. In this chapter: Biotechnology and its Applications, you will study the utilization of biotechnology in the field of horticulture includes logical procedures. A portion of these procedures incorporates Genetically Modified Organism, Bt Cotton, Pest Resistant Plants, and so forth. The usage of the procedures helps in adjusting plants, animals, and microorganisms.

It additionally guarantees that their rural efficiency is improved generally. There procedures like immunizations, tissue culture, genetic designing which are additionally being used. You may have just gone over the subject of Recombinant DNA or rDNA innovation. This is a significant biotechnological application particularly in the field of medicinal services.

The significance of Recombinant DNA innovation is so much since it helps in the large scale manufacturing of protected and more proficient medications. It likewise forestalls unwanted insusceptible reactions which are normal with different clinical items from non-human sources. At present, there are around 30 recombinant therapeutics that have been endorsed for utilize around the world. In India, there are 12 of them being directly advertised. How about we view a portion of the utilization of these Recombinant therapeutics. It isn’t obscure to us that researchers use mice or rodents so as to do their exploration. However, it probably won’t be known to us that these are not the rodents and mice which are generally found. Or maybe the researchers utilize genetically changed mice or rodents for their examination purposes. These are known as Transgenic animals. Let us get familiar with these transgenic animals. 

Quick revision notes

We ought to have information that biotechnology essentially manages the mechanical scale production of different bio-pharmaceuticals and naturally using genetically adjusted microorganisms, growths, plants, and animals. The training incorporates therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically permute crops for farming, handled food, bioremediation, squander treatment, and vitality production.

The three primary basic exploration zones of biotechnology include:

  1. Giving the best impetus as the improved life form typically organisms or unadulterated chemical.
  2. Making ideal conditions through designing for an impetus to act
  3. Downstream handling advances to decontaminate the proteins or natural mixes.

Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture: food production can be extended by

  1. Agro-synthetic based horticulture  Agro-synthetic based horticulture  
  2. Natural horticulture Natural horticulture
  3. Genetically built yield based agribusinessGenetically built yield based agribusiness
  4. Green upset effectively expanded the food production numerous folds by using better administration practices and using agrochemicals, manures, and pesticides. Further increment in production is beyond the realm of imagination by using these strategies. To beat these generally adjusted harvests are utilized.
  5. Plants, microbes, growths, and animals whose names have been adjusted by control are called Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs. GM plants have numerous applications like
  6. Made yields more open-minded to abiotic stresses
  7. Diminished dependence on compound pesticides
  8. Assisted with lessening post-gather misfortunes
  9. The productivity of mineral utilization by plants is expanded
  10. Upgraded the dietary benefit of food model nutrient An advanced rice

Utilization of Biotechnology in production of irritation safe plants–

Utilization of Biotechnology in irritationIrritation safe plants decline the quantity of pesticides utilized. Bt poison is delivered by a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis. The poison gene has been cloned from the microscopic organisms and been communicated in plants to give protection from creepy crawlies without the requirement for bug sprays; as a result, made a bio-pesticide. Models are Bt cotton, Bt corn, rice, tomato, potato, and soybean, and so on

Bt cotton – Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins that execute certain bugs like lepidopterans, coleopterans (scarabs), and dipterans (flies, mosquitoes).

  1. thuringiensis produces precious stones containing a harmful insecticidal protein. This harmful protein is available in the bacterium as inert proteins, yet when the bug ingests the idle structure because of antacid pH of the gut, it gets changed over into a functioning type of poison. It additionally ties to the outside of midgut epithelial cells and makes pores that cause cell expanding and lysis and in the long run demise of the bug.

The gene from B. thuringiensis has been joined into a few yield plants, for example, cotton, maize, rice, and so on. The poison is coded by a gene, otherwise called cry. The protein coded by the genes are known as crylAb and cryIAb control the cotton bollworms, cryIAb controls corn drill.

Nuisance Resistant Plants

Nematodes like Meloidogyne incognita taint the underlying foundations of tobacco plants and cause a decrease in yield. The invasion of these nematodes can be forestalled by the procedure of RNA obstruction (RNAi). RNAi is available in every eukaryotic creature as a cell resistance by quieting explicit mRNA because of correlative dsRNA particles that predicament to and forestall interpretation of the mRNA. 

The wellspring of integral dsRNA might be from contamination by infections having RNA genomes or portable genetic components that repeat through RNA transitional.

Nematode explicit genes were brought into the host plant using Agrobacterium vectors. The parasite couldn’t make due in a transgenic have communicating RNA.

Biotechnological Applications in Medicine

The rDNA innovative procedures have had a huge effect in the zone of human services by empowering the large scale manufacturing of protected and more successful remedial medications. 

Biotechnological Applications in MedicineAt present, around 30 recombinant therapeutics have been affirmed for human utilize everywhere throughout the world. 12 of these are by and by being showcased in India.

Genetically Engineered Insulin

Grown-up beginning diabetes can be constrained by taking insulin at customary stretches. The essential wellspring of this insulin was the detachment of insulin from animals. These days, insulin can be gotten from microscopic organisms using strategies of biotechnology.

Insulin was before removed from the pancreas of butchered steers and pigs, however, insulin from these sources builds up a hypersensitivity or different kinds of responses to the unfamiliar protein.

Insulin comprises of two short polypeptide chains-chain An and chain B, that are connected together by disulfide spans.

In people, insulin is integrated as a prohormone, which contains an additional stretch called C peptide, which is missing in develop insulin. The primary test for the production of insulin using the rDNA procedure was getting insulin collected into a refined structure.

An American organization, Eli Lilly, in 1983, arranged two DNA successions relating to the A and B chain of human insulin and presented them in plasmids of E.coli to deliver insulin chains. Chain An and Chain B were assembled independently, removed, and joined by making disulfide bonds to frame human insulin.

Gene Therapy

It is an assortment of techniques that permits the amendment of a gene imperfection that has been analyzed in a kid or undeveloped organism. This technique is applied to an individual with a genetic ailment. In this technique, genes are embedded into an individual’s cells and tissues to treat a malady.

  •         The adjustment of gene imperfection includes the conveyance of a typical gene into the individual or incipient organism to assume control over the capacity of and make up for the non-practical genes.
  •         The first clinical gene treatment was done in 1990 to a 4-year-old young lady with adenosine deaminase (ADA) lack. This issue is caused because of the cancellation of the gene for adenosine deaminase that is fundamental for the insusceptible framework to work. This deformity can be treated by compound substitution treatment in which practical ADA is given to the patient by infusion or bone marrow relocate.- –
  •         In the strategy for gene treatment, lymphocytes from the blood of the patient are developed in a culture medium outside the body. A practical ADA cDNA is also gotten these lymphocytes and come back to the patient. In this technique, intermittent implantation of such genetically designed lymphocytes is required. On the off chance that genes confined from bone marrow cells produce ADA into cells at early stage stages, it could be a perpetual fix.

Molecular Diagnosis

The traditional strategy for findings, for example, serum or pee investigation can’t early discovery of sickness causing microbes or infections. Following strategies can be utilized to analyzed before

  1. Recombinant DNA innovation
  2. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

III. Protein Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA).

  •         Symptoms of the malady show up just when the convergence of microbes gets expanded altogether. A low grouping of microbes and infections can be distinguished by the enhancement of nucleic corrosive by PCR. It recognizes the change in the gene in malignancy patients. PCR is utilized to perceive HIV in questioned AIDS patients. A genetic issue can be additionally identified by using the PCR method.
  •         A single-abandoned DNA or RNA having a radioactive particle is permitted to hybridize to its reciprocal DNA in a clone of cells followed by discovery using autoradiography.
  •         ELISA is constantly founded on the guideline of antigen-neutralizer connection. Contamination by a microbe can be recognized by the nearness of antigens like proteins, glycoproteins, and so forth or by distinguishing the antibodies blended against the microorganism.

Transgenic Animals

Animals that have had their polymer controlled to have and all-out a far off cistron square measure alluded to as transgenic animals. Transgenic mice, rodents, bunnies, pigs, sheep, bovines, and fish are made. Basic explanations behind the occasion of transgenic animals-

  1. a) customary physiology and advancement they’re intended to allow the investigation of cistron guideline, their effect on the regular activity of the body. By presenting genes from various species that adjust the arrangement of this issue and discovering the organic impacts that outcome.
  2. b) Study of disorder an assortment of transgenic animals square measure intended to broaden our comprehension of anyway genes add to the occasion of the malady. The transgenic model has been produced for maladies like disease, mucoviscidosis, Alzheimer’s affliction, and so forth.
  3. c) Biological items. Transgenic animals that turn out supportive natural items are frequently made by the presentation of the bit of polymer (gene) that codes for a chose item like human supermolecule (alpha – 1-antitrypsin) wont to treat respiratory sickness. The essential transgenic cow, Rosie, made human protein-advanced milk (alpha-lactalbumin – two.4 gm/litre).
  4. d) vaccinum wellbeing transgenic mice square measure created to be utilized in testing the security of antibodies before they’re utilized on people. The juvenile loss of motion vaccinum was tried on transgenic mice than on the monkey.
  5. e) Chemical security testing–transgenic animals, the square measure made that convey genes that manufacture them extra delicate to noxious substances than non-transgenic animals. It gives the USA less time.

Moral Issues:

The Indian Government has begun associations like GEAC, which can manufacture decisions concerning the security of presenting metric weight unit-living beings for open administrations and the legitimacy of GM examination.

A patent is a privilege allowed by a legislature to a designer to keep others from making business use. Presently, licenses are given for organic substances and items got from common assets.


It is the term I need to consult with bio-assets by transnational partnerships and elective associations while not remedying approval from the nations and people included while not balancing installment.

In 1997, A yank organization got patent rights on Basmati rice through the American Patent and Trademark working environment. This permitted the organization to sell ‘another kind of Basmati, inside America and abroad. This ‘new’ kind of Basmati had been gotten from Indian rancher’s assortments. Indian Basmati was crossed with semi-predominate assortments and asserted as a creation or an oddity.

A few attempts have conjointly been made to patent uses, items, and procedures supporting Indian antiquated enhanced drugs, e.g., turmeric and tree.


Q: State True or False. Transgenic animals generated in research centers will be released into the plan when utilized.

Arrangement: False. Whenever released, transgenic animals will unfurl during a characteristic populace and cause an irregularity inside the plan.

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