Morphology of Flowering Plants: Class 11 Biology NCERT Chapter 5

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 – Morphology of Flowering Plants

In Chapter 4 of NCERT 11 Biology Book: the Animal Kingdom, you must have learned about how the largest kingdom among the five-kingdom of classifications is the animal kingdom and all its members. In chapter 5: the morphology of flowering plants mainly refers to the study of external features of flowering plants. The two main external parts of a plant include –Root system and the Shoot system.

Anatomy of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes discusses blossoming plants. Additionally, it clarifies that there is a wide variety in the shape, size, and method of sustenance, propensity and natural surroundings, and life expectancy of blooming plants. Moreover, they have a very much evolved shoot and root framework. Moreover, it clarifies the difference that dicotyledonous plants have taproots and monocotyledons have stringy roots. What’s more, the root arrangement of certain plants changes for the capacity of food, mechanical help, and different procedures. Also, stem, blossoms, leaves, and natural products are the various pieces of the shooting framework. 

Generally imperative, the morphological highlights of the stem help to separate the come from roots. Aside from that, the stem alters and perform assorted capacities. Moreover, leaves likewise display checked varieties and get altered into different structures like ringlets. Besides, the bloom is intended for sexual generation and they are organized into various sorts of inflorescences. What’s more, they show a colossal variety in structure, the situation of the ovary, balance, and considerably more. Additionally, the botanical outline speaks to the botanical highlights of a blossom. Along these lines, the Anatomy of Flowering Plants class 11 notes will assist you with examining this in detail.

Quick revision notes

Anatomy is the part of natural science that manages the investigation of structure, size, shading, structure and relative situation of different pieces of living beings. 

Significance of Anatomy 

  1. Information on Anatomy is fundamental for acknowledgment or recognizable proof of plants. 
  2. It gives data about the scope of varieties found in species. 
  3. Insufficiency and poisonousness indications are Anatomical changes that happen in light of deficiency or overabundance of minerals.

Parts of Flowering Plants

  • All the blooming plants have roots, stem, leaves, blossom and organic products. The underground pieces of blossoming plant are the root framework and the part over the ground shapes the shooting framework.

The Root

  • In Dicotyledons, stretching of radicle shapes the essential roots which bears horizontal foundations of a few requests called secondary roots, tertiary roots, and so forth. 
  • Essential roots alongside sidelong roots frame the Taproot framework. For instance: Mustard, Gram, and so forth. 
  • In monocotyledons, the essential root is supplanted by a huge number of roots at its base of the stem to comprise the Fibrous root framework. Wheat, rice and so on. 
  • The roots that emerge from different pieces of plant adjacent to radicle are called extrinsic roots. Model Grass, Banyan tree, Maize, and so forth. 
  • The fundamental capacity of root framework is an assimilation of water and minerals from the soil, giving appropriate mooring to the plant parts and putting away save food materials.

Regions of Roots

  • The pinnacle of the root is secured by a thimble-like structure called root to top, it ensures the delicate peak of the root while clearing a path through the soil. 
  • Over the root, the top is an area of meristematic movement having little cells with thick cytoplasm. 
  • The part over the area of meristematic movement is an area of stretching where cells undergo lengthening and broadening to expand the length of the root. 

Modification of roots-Roots is changed for capacity, nitrogen obsession, air circulation, and backing.

  • Area of development contains root hairs that help in the assimilation of water and minerals.
  • Tap base of carrot, turnip and extrinsic base of yam get swollen to store food. 
  • Prop base of Banyan and Stilt base of maize and sugarcane have supporting root coming out from the lower hub of stems. 
  • In Rhizophora, Pneumatophores help to get oxygen for breath as it develops in damp regions.

The Stem

  • It is the rising piece of the pivot bearing branches, leaves, blossoms and fruits. It creates from Plumule of the embryo. 
  • The stem bears hubs and internodes. The area of the stem where leaves are conceived are called hubs and the part between two hubs are called internodes. 
  • The fundamental capacity of the stem is spreading branches, bearing leaves, blossoms and organic products. It likewise directs water and minerals from the root to leaves and result of photosynthesis. 
  • Some stem performs uncommon capacities like stockpiling of food, backing, assurance and vegetative proliferation.

Modification of stems

  • Underground stem of potato, ginger and turmeric are adjusted to store food. They additionally go about as organ of perennation in troublesome conditions. 
  • Stem tendril help plants to move as in cucumber, pumpkins, and grapes. 
  • Axillary buds of the stem may change into woody, straight and pointed thistles as in Citrus and Bougainvillea. 
  • Plants of parched locales change their stem to smoothed (Opuntia), plump barrel-shaped (Euphorbia) having chlorophyll for photosynthesis.

The Leaf

The Leaf: Morphology of Flowering Plants

  • The leaf is a green, unique exogenous sidelong straightened outgrowth which is borne on the hub of a stem or its branches and is specific to perform photosynthesis.
  • Leaves start from shoot apical meristem and are organized in an acropetal request. 
  • A normal leaf comprises of three sections Leaf base, Petiole, Lamina. The leaf is affixed with stem by Leaf Base which may bear two little leaf-like structure called stipule. 
  • Center noticeable vein is called mid vein. Veins give unbending nature to the leaf sharp edge and go about as a channel for transport of water and minerals. 
  • The plan of vein and veinlets in the lamina is called venation.
Reticulate venation Parallel venation
  1. Veinlets form a network.
  2. Veins are irregularly distributed.
  3. It is available in all Dicotyledons like Gram, Pea, Beans and Mango and so forth.
  1. A network is absent.
  2. Veins are parallel to one another.
  3. It is available in Monocotyledons like Grass, Banana, Rice, and so forth.

Types of leaves

  • A leaf having a solitary or unified lamina is called Simple leaf. The cuts don’t contact the midrib. For instance, Mango, Guava and so forth. 
  • At the point when the entry point of lamina reach up to the midrib and breaking it into various flyers, it is called Compound leaves. 
  • In a Pinnately compound leaves, various handouts are available on a basic hub called the rachis. Model Neem. 
  • The leaflets are appended at the normal point in palmately compound leaves. For instance, Silk cotton. 
  • The example of the plan of leaves on the stem or branch is called Phyllotaxy. 
  • In interchange sort of phyllotaxy single leaf emerge at every hub as in China rose. 
  • In opposite kinds of phyllotaxy, a couple of leaves emerge from every hub opposite to one another as in Guava. 
  • On the off chance that multiple leaves emerge at a hub and structure, a whorl is called whorled kind of phyllotaxy as in Alstonia. 
  • Leaves are adjusted to perform different capacities like changed over to ring for moving as in Peas and spines for safeguard in Cactus.


The plan of blossoms on the flower pivot is named as inflorescence. Two fundamental kinds of the inflorescence are racemose and cymose.

Racemose Cymose
  1. The main axis is continuous to grow.
  2. Flowers are borne laterally in acropetal succession.
  3. Example- Radish, Mustard.
  1. The main axis terminates in flower having limited growth.
  2. Flowers are borne in a basipetal succession.
  3. Example- Jasmine, Bougainvillea.

The flower

  • Blossom is the regenerative piece of angiosperms plants for sexual methods for proliferation. 
  • A run of the mill blossom has four whorls masterminded on a swollen finish of stalk or pedicel called the thalamus. They are Corolla, Androecium, Gynoecium and Calyx.
  • At the point when a blossom has both androecium and gynoecium, the bloom is called promiscuous and bloom having either androecium or gynoecium just is called unisexual. 
  • At the point when blossom can be separated into two equivalent spiral parts in any radii going through the centre the balance of bloom is called actinomorphic (outspread balance) as in Mustard, Datura, and Chili. 
  • At the point when blossom can be isolated into two comparative parts just in one vertical plane, it is zygomorphic as in Pea, Gulmohar, Cassia and so on. 
  • At the point when Floral extremities are in various of 3,4 or 5 they are called trimerous, tetramerous and pentamerous separately. Blossom with bracts are called bracteates and without it ebracteate.

In view of the situation of ovary concerning another botanical part on the thalamus, flowers are of following sorts:

Types of flowers

  1. Hypogynous flower– Ovary occupies the highest position. The ovary in such case is called unrivalled. Eg. Mustard, brinjal and china rose. 
  2. Perigynous blossoms If the gynoecium is arranged at the inside and different parts are on the edge at same stature. The ovary is called half-second rate. 
  3. Epigynous blossoms The edge of thalamus develops to totally cover the ovary. The ovary is supposed to be the second rate.
  4. The calyx is the furthest whorl of the bloom; its individuals are called sepals. They are commonly green and verdant; ensure the bloom in the bud stage. It might be gamosepalous (sepals joined together) or polysepalous (sepals free). 

Corolla comprises of petals, brilliantly hued to draw in the insects for fertilization. They might be gamopetalous or polypetalous.

  1. The method of the plan of sepals or petals in the botanical bud as for different individuals from the same whorl is called aestivation. In valvate, the whorls of sepals or petals contact each other as in Calotropis. In Twisted aestivation, the whorls cover each other as in China rose. 
  2. In Imbricate aestivation, edge cover one another yet not specifically style as in Gulmohur. 
  3. In pea and bean blossoms, there are five petals-the biggest (standard) covers the two sidelong petals (wings) which thus cover two littlest foremost petals (bottom). This sort of aestivation is known as vexillary or papilionaceous.

Morphology of Flowering Plants

The Androecium

  • Androecium address the male regenerative bits of bloom involves stamens. Each stamen includes fibre and anther. Residue grains are conveyed in dust sac. Sterile stamen is called Stemenode. 
  • When stamens are added with petals it is called epipetalous (Brinjal). Stamen may be free (polyandrous) or maybe participated in one pack (monadelphous), two gatherings (diadelphous), more than two (polyadelphous).

The Gynoecium

  • Female regenerative bit of blossom involves in any event one carpels. Each carpel is involved in disgrace style and ovary. 
  • If more than one carpel is available, it may be free (apocarpous) as in lotus and rose or entwined (syncarpous) as in mustard and tomato. 
  • After treatment, ovules change into seeds and ovary form into natural items.


  • The plan of ovules inside the ovary is called placentation.

The fruit

Morphology of Flowering Plants: the fruit

  • Develop and aged ovary created after preparation is fruit. On the off chance that fruit is framed without treatment of ovary, it is called parthenocarpic fruit. 
  • The natural product comprises of seeds and pericarp. The thick and beefy pericarp is three-layered called epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
  • Dicotyledonous Seed is comprised of a seed coat and an undeveloped organism. Incipient organism is comprised of embryonal pivot, radicle and cotyledons. 
  • Seed coat has two layers of external testa and internal tegmen. Hilum is scar through which seed is appended to the ovary. Little pore over the hilum is called micropyle.

Morphology of Flowering Plants

Monocotyledonous seeds

Monocotyledonous seeds

  • In monocotyledonous seed, external covering of endosperm separate the incipient organism by a proteinous layer called aleurone layer. 
  • Single cotyledon is called as scutellum having a short hub bearing Plumule and radicle. 
  • Plumule and radicle are shut inside sheaths called as coleoptile and coleorhiza separately.


The plant is portrayed start with its propensity, vegetative characters – roots, stem and leaves and afterwards botanical characters inflorescence and flower parts. 

The flower equation is spoken to by certain images. In the botanical equation, Br represents bracteate K represents calyx, C for corolla, P for perianth, A for androecium and G for Gynoecium. The combination is shown by encasing the figure inside section and bond by a line drawn over the images of the botanical parts.

Family Fabaceae-

  • This family was earlier known as Papilionoideae. Herbs, tree root or shrubs with root nodules. Pinnately compound leaves with reticulate venation.

Floral Formula

Economic importance

Plants having a place with this family are wellsprings of heartbeats like Gram, Arhar, Bean. Pea and so forth and eatable oils like groundnut, soybean, and so on.

Family Solanaceae-

  • Plant body spices or bushes, infrequently little trees, generally known as potato family. Leaves straightforward or pinnately compound. Reticulate venation.

Many of them are a source of food (potato, tomato, Brinjal etc.), spices (Chilli) etc.

Floral Formula

Family Liliaceae

  • Commonly known as Lily family. Monocots, perennial herbs. Leaves alternate with parallel venation.
  • Underground bulbs, corms or rhizomes.
  • Actinomorphic, sepals and petals are missing, having perianth.

Floral Formula

It includes Medicine plants (aloe), ornamental (Tulip) and vegetable (colchicine).

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