Agriculture: Class 10 Geography NCERT Chapter 4

Key Features of NCERT Material for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture 

In the last chapter 3, you learned about Water resources. In this chapter, you will learn about that Agriculture is an essential movement, which produces most of the food crude material for various industries.

Two-third of India’s population is occupied with farming activities. In CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture, you will study the different types of cultivating, editing patterns, and significant crops developed in India. At long last, you will realize that Agriculture contributes to the National Economic, Employment, and Output. 

Agriculture: class 10 geography

Quick revision notes 

Agriculture is an essential movement that produces most of the food that we consume besides food grain; it also makes crude material for various industries. 

Some agriculture items like tea, espresso, spice, and so forth… 

Types of cultivating: 

The development technique has changed significantly, relying on the characteristics of physical natural, innovative know-how, and socio-culture practices. Cultivating various from subsistence to business type. At present, in different parts of India. 

Crude Subsistence Farming: 

This sort of cultivating is still polished in not many pockets of India. 

The assistance of crude tools like scraper day and burrowing sticks, and family/network work. 

This kind of cultivating depends upon monsoon, regular fruitfulness of the soil, and other ecological conditions’ suitability to the crops developed. 

It is ‘slash and consume’ agriculture. 

The soil richness decreases. 

The farmers shift and away from the fresh fix of land for development. 

Intensive Subsistence Farming: 

This kind of cultivating is rehearsed areas of high populace pressure on land. 

It is work-intensive, cultivating. 

The natural inputs and water systems are used for acquiring higher creation. 

There is enormous pressure on agricultural land. 

Business Farming: 

This kind of cultivating is the use of higher doses of present-day inputs. 

The level of commercialization of agriculture varies, starting with one locale then onto the next. 

A single harvest s developed in an enormous zone. 

The assistance of traveler laborers. 

The produces are used as crude material in respective industries. 

Trimming Pattern: 

These are also reflected in rural practices and editing design in the nation. 

India has three trimming seasons – rabi, Kharif, and zaid. 

Rajasthan has also been a significant factor in the development of the previously mentioned rabi crops. 

He crops created during ‘zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and feed crops. 

Major crops: 

Major crops developed in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, espresso, sugarcane, oilseeds. Cotton and jute, and so on., 

Agriculture: Major crops

Non – Food Crops: 


It is a central yield, however, under particular conditions. 

It requires a moist and damp atmosphere with precipitation of more than 200cm. furthermore, temperature above 25℃ 

Fiber Crops: 

Cotton, jute, hemp, and traditional silk are the four major fiber crops developed in India. 

Rearing of silkworms for the creation of silk fiber is known as sericulture. 


India is accepted to be the first home of the cotton plant. 

In 2008 India was the second-largest maker of cotton after China. 


It is known as the brilliant fiber. 

It is losing the business sector to synthetic fibers and pressing materials, especially the nylon. 

Innovative and Institutional Reforms: 

The pace of agricultural turn of events. 

Agriculture is the occupation for more than 60 percent. 

The administration of India left after presenting agrarian during the 1960s and 1970s 

The administration also announces the least support prices reasonable and acquirement prices for significant crops. 

Consolidation of holdings, collaboration and nullification of zamindari, and so forth were offered to bring about institutional reforms in the nation after autonomy. 

The green transformation was based on bundle innovation, and the white insurgency (activity flood) were some of the strategies started to improve a great deal of Indian agriculture. 

The land change was the principal focus of our first five-year plan. 

Improvement in not many selected areas. During the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land advancement program was started, which includes both institutional and mechanical reforms. 

Provision for crop insurance against a dry spell, flood, twister, fire, and disease. 

Establishment of Grameen Banks, helpful societies and banks for giving advance facilities to the farmers at lower interest rates. 

Kisan credit cards and personal mishap insurance schemes are presented. 

Special climate bulletins and rural programs for farmers were presented on radio and T.V. 

The administration also announces the least support cost. 

Gainful and acquirement prices for significant crops to check the abuse of farmers by speculators and agents. 

The commitment of agriculture to the public Economy, business, and yield: 

Gross Domestic Product has registered a declining pattern from 1951 onwards. 

The populace continued to be as high as 63 percent in 2001. 

The administration of India put forth purposeful attempts to modernize agriculture in India. 

India put forth purposeful attempts to modernize the agriculture Establishment of the Indian Council of Agriculture. 

The development rate in agriculture is decelerating, which is a disturbing situation. 

Agriculture spine of the Indian Economy. 

Share in the gross domestic item. 

Giving business. 

Employment to the populace. 

The administration of India put forth deliberate attempts to modernize agriculture. 

Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, farming universities. 

Veterinary services and creature reproducing centers. 

Cultivation advancement. 

Research and advancement in the field of meteorology and climate forecast. 

Food Security: 

Food security

The quantity of individuals who don’t have food security is disproportionately huge in some districts of our nation, especially in financially less created states with a higher poverty occurrence. 

The strategy’s focus is on fixing the support cost for the obtainment of wheat and rice to keep up their stocks—Food Corporation of India. 

The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the administration, reported least support cost. 

Opposition for land between non – agriculture uses such as housing and so forth., 

The uncertainties of creation and market seriously influence the farmers. 

The higher the supply, the lower is the interest. 

Effect of Globalization on Agriculture: 

Globalization is not another phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonization. 

Till today it is one of the essential items of fare from India. 

The cotton material industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished because of India’s accessibility of good quality cotton. 

The Champaran development which started in 1917 in Bihar. 

Under globalization, especially after 1990, the rancher in India have been exposed to new challenges.

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